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内陆区域中心城市金融产业集聚的演化机理——以郑东新区为例
赵建吉1,2,, 王艳华1,2, 吕可文1,2, 茹乐峰3, 苗长虹1,2,
1. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明传承与现代文明建设河南省协同创新中心,开封 475001
2. 河南大学环境与规划学院,开封 475000
3. 河南财经政法大学工程管理与房地产学院,郑州 450046

作者简介:赵建吉(1983-), 男, 山东临沂人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110010216M), 主要研究方向为产业集群与区域发展。E-mail:zhaojianji@126.com

苗长虹(1965-), 男, 河南鄢陵人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要研究方向为经济地理与区域发展。E-mail:chhmiao@henu.edu.cn
摘要

基于演化和制度经济地理学,构建了区位机会窗口、金融机构衍生、区域产业分叉、制度厚度“四位一体”的分析框架,以郑州为案例,以郑东新区金融产业集聚区为对象,通过问卷调查和深度访谈,研究了中国内陆区域中心城市金融产业在特定空间的集聚过程与演化机理。研究发现:在金融产业集聚起步阶段,郑东新区开发建设为金融业发展打开了区位机会窗口;在快速发展阶段,金融机构衍生是金融业集聚和集群化发展的重要内生动力;在全面提升阶段,区域产业分叉是金融业态创新和高端要素集聚的主导力量;在郑东新区金融业集聚演化的全过程中,持续改进的政府支持与制度安排使制度厚度不断加厚,自增强机制使制度空间的粘性作用不断增强。与制造业的企业衍生、产业分叉过程不同,金融业集聚演化缺乏从大学实验室、科研机构、已有产业衍生和分叉出以技术为纽带的相关企业的实践,但对制度空间的粘性作用有更强的依赖。

关键词: 演化经济地理学; 制度经济地理学; 金融业集聚; 区域中心城市; 郑东新区;
The evolutionary mechanism of financial industry agglomeration in central cities of inland China: A case study of Zhengdong New District in Zhengzhou
ZHAO Jianji1,2,, WANG Yanhua1,2, LV Kewen1,2, RU Lefeng3, MIAO Changhong1,2,
1. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
2. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475000, Henan, China
3. College of Construction Management and Real Estate, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Abstract

Evolutionary economic geography and institutional economic geography, which emerged in the late 1990s, provides the important perspective to the dynamics and spatial process of industry agglomeration. Based on the evolutionary economic geography and institutional economic geography, an analytical framework, including window of locational opportunity, financial enterprise/institution spinoff, regional branching and institutional thickness, has been proposed, and a particular perspective with respect to the key problem in economic geography of how to explain the rise and dynamics of financial industry agglomeration in inland regional central city has been explained. Accroding to financial statistics during the period 2003-2014, the relative questionnaires and qualitative interviews were conducted in Zhengdong New District. The findings can be summarized as follows: The establishment of Zhengdong New District has opened the window of locational opportunity for the financial industry in its formation stage; the spinoff of financial institution has played an important endogenous dynamic part in financial industry agglomeration in its fast development stage; regional branching laid a solid foundation for the innovation of financial formats and high-end elements agglomeration in the promotion stage; in the entire process of financial industry agglomeration, the continuous improvement of government support and institutional arrangements strengthened the institutional thickness, and the self-reinforcing mechanism made the stickiness of the institutional space continuously improving. However, some differences were found between financial industry and manufacturing industry, the agglomeration of financial industry was lack of the technology-related firms derived from university laboratory, academic institutions and existing industry, which had a stronger dependence on the stickiness of institutional thickness.

Keyword: evolutionary economic geography; institutional economic geography; financial industrial agglomeration; regional central city; Zhengdong New District;
1 引言

空间集聚是经济活动最突出的地理特征[1]。20世纪70年代以来,伴随着马歇尔产业区理论复兴以及新产业区研究的兴起,产业空间集聚成为“新经济地理学”和“新地理经济学”研究的前沿命题。新经济地理学主要从柔性专业化、生产系统的垂直分离、交易成本、技术学习与创新等视角解释产业空间集聚[2],并先后形成了弹性专业化、新产业空间、创新环境、产业集群、区域创新系统等不同学派[3]。而以克鲁格曼等为代表的新地理经济学家则从规模报酬递增、运输成本、路径依赖等视角对空间集聚进行分析[4]

金融业是现代经济的核心,为实体经济健康发展、资源配置效率提升、新业态出现及新兴产业成长提供重要支撑,其发展及空间格局引起了经济地理学者的广泛关注[5,6,7,8,9]。2015年在英国牛津大学召开的第四届全球经济地理大会上,金融地理及相关研究成为会议的特色和亮点[10]。围绕金融业分布及其空间集聚,国外研究主要集中在金融中心区位及影响因素[11]、银行业的空间分布[12]、证券业的区位选择[13]、风险投资的空间分布及风险投资与投资企业的空间邻近[14]、上市企业空间区位选择[15]等方面。新世纪以来,中国成为塑造全球经济地理版图的重要力量,金融地理学的研究日益受到青睐。有关研究较为关注银行业为代表的金融机构区位选择与空间格局,研究区域主要集中在北京、上海、广州为核心的东部城市或城市群[16, 17, 18];近年来以中西部地区为对象的研究逐渐增多[19],研究尺度从全国、省域、城市群拓展到城市内部[20, 21, 22]

金融业空间集聚机理是金融地理学研究的一个核心领域。学术界认为区域经济增长与产业发展、规模经济、信息因素等与金融业集聚密切相关。如Vernon认为,纽约金融业集聚得益于纽约港的繁荣以及城市增长[23];Shaw进一步提出,产业集聚和金融业集聚的关系,从根本上说是宏观层面的经济发展和金融发展关系在中观层面的反映[24];而有学者认为,规模经济会促使金融机构加强合作、共享基础设施、信息沟通便捷、流通环节简化,进而导致金融业集聚[25,26,27]。赵晓斌等从“不对称信息”和“信息腹地”理论出发,认为信息的力量是金融集聚的主要决定因素[28]。也有研究认为,地理邻近和面对面接触所形成的人际关系是金融业空间集聚的重要原因[29],其对于支付手段复杂并且信息灵敏度高的股票和金融衍生工具非常重要[30]。此外,还有研究关注到国家和地方政府在促进金融产业空间集聚中的作用[31],对上海陆家嘴金融产业集聚的研究表明,良好的政策法规是金融集聚的重要动因[32]

事实上,导致产业空间集聚的因素是相互影响、共同演化的,因此应将产业集聚置于动态、演化的视野中才能得到很好的理解[33-34]。近年来兴起的演化和制度经济地理学,为产业空间集聚提供了新的分析视角。相关研究集中在英国汽车[35]、美国汽车[36]、美国轮胎[37]、荷兰图书出版[38]等制造业以及航空航天[39]、生物技术[40]等高新技术产业。总体而言,基于演化和制度经济地理学对金融业为代表的生产性服务业空间集聚研究较为薄弱[41, 42]。生产性服务业主要向其他企业和组织提供服务,企业集聚更多基于对信息、规范、专业技能和知识等需求,解释制造业集聚的相关理论能否适用于生产性服务业尚需讨论[43, 44]。同时,目前的金融地理相关研究主要以欧美发达国家为对象,迫切需要“去中心化(decenter)”,加强对欠发达地区的研究[18]

中国是一个处于快速工业化和经济社会快速转型的发展中大国。一方面,金融业总体上是在1978年改革开放后成长起来的,发展历史较短;另一方面,广大中西部内陆地区金融业还处在形成与发展阶段,围绕区域中心城市建设而规划的金融产业集聚区,是在政府强力推动下形成的,有非常强的“企业家型政府”主导的特色。因此,中国金融业的集聚发展,具有与西方发达国家不尽相同的特征、影响因素和作用机理。中国东部经济发达的国家中心城市上海、北京、深圳,在积极建设全球金融中心;而在中西部经济欠发达地区,一些内陆区域中心城市,如成都、重庆、武汉、西安、郑州等,为迈向国家中心城市,也分别提出了规划建设西部金融中心、长江上游区域性金融中心、中部地区区域性金融中心、西北地区区域性金融中心、辐射中西部的区域性金融中心的目标。根据2015年中国金融中心指数(CDI CFCI)报告的数据[45],在中国31个金融中心城市中,郑州的金融市场规模排名全国第五位;综合竞争力排名上升幅度最大,提高了7个位次;金融产业绩效排名上升幅度也最大,提高了9个位次。金融业空间集聚是金融中心形成的前提与基础,作为经济欠发达的内陆地区,郑州的金融业空间集聚是如何实现的,影响因素和机理是什么?

本文在演化与制度经济地理学相关理论基础上,构建区位机会窗口—金融机构衍生—区域产业分叉—制度厚度“四位一体”的分析框架,以郑州建设区域金融中心的核心载体郑东新区为对象,分析内陆区域中心城市金融产业空间集聚的演化机理,理论上旨在推进演化与制度经济地理学对于欠发达地区金融业空间集聚的研究,实践上拟为促进内陆区域性金融中心建设、加快内陆区域中心城市发展提供政策支持。

2 分析框架
2.1 区位机会窗口(WLO)

为了解释新产业在阳光地带(Sunbelt states)的成长,以及旧的产业在铁锈地带(Rustbelt states)的逐渐衰落,Scott、Storper等经济地理学家提出了区位机会窗口(Window of Locational Opportunity, WLO)的概念[46, 47]。演化经济地理学借鉴并发展了这一概念,认为新产业的产生和出现是不确定和不可预测的[48],新产业的发展需要新的知识、技能、制度环境,而已有组织和机构难以满足这些条件,因为它们都是面向旧的技术和发展路径。但拥有多种熟练劳动力、产业、企业和制度“蓄水池”的区域由于集聚经济的存在,具有了产业发展的优势[49],区位机会窗口将在这些能够吸引新产业进入并提供特定能力资本的区域“打开”[50]。在打开区位机会窗口的区域,孵化新产业的企业将更多地开发新的知识,不断积累资本并敢于在未知市场领域投资,员工也通过干中学(on-the-job-learning)进行技能积累。一旦产业发展跃过一定门槛,自我强化机制开始发挥作用,行业不断增长的需求将改变当地环境:形成新的制度安排、完善教育设施、建立专门劳动力市场等,进而实现新产业的地域化过程。

2.2 金融机构衍生(Spin-off)

衍生是指由现有企业/机构的员工在相同或者相关行业创立新企业的过程。企业衍生是影响产业空间集聚的重要机制[51, 52, 53]。首先,在行业生命周期的早期阶段,能产生更多衍生企业的区域,往往能够主导这个产业的发展。这是因为新的衍生企业的产生在很大程度上取决于区域内已有企业的数量。企业越多,产生更多衍生企业的可能性就越大。无论从企业还是大学衍生出来的企业,区位选择上都更倾向于同他们的母公司在同一区域[51]。其次,衍生过程是隐性知识从母体向衍生企业传播和扩散的重要通道[54]。由于衍生企业更倾向于进入与母公司相同或相关领域,这些隐性知识对于衍生企业技术和能力的发展起到积极的促进作用。Klepper研究认为,在相同或相关产业具有前期经验的企业家,往往比没有经验的企业家具有更好的表现,也就是“成功孕育成功”[36]

2.3 区域产业分叉(Regional branching)

新业态/新产业门类的出现广受学术界和政府部门的重视,因为新业态/新产业门类与创新和创业活动紧密相关,可以为未来经济增长提供重要平台和机遇[55, 56, 57]。演化经济地理学者运用区域产业分叉(regional branching)的概念,来研究产业多样性和相关多样化带来的知识溢出影响,而不仅仅是专业化所带来的马歇尔式的外部性,并对西班牙新兴产业的产生与发展、欧洲燃料电池产业的兴起等案例进行了实证研究[58,59]。与基于集群的相关政策过分强调企业间的网络联系和互动相比,区域产业分叉则更为关注与已经存在的产业因认知临近而形成的支撑网络,这些技术关联可能带来更为有效的区域创新政策[60,6162]。对于已有产业而言,新业态/新产业门类的出现虽然不一定能大幅提升产业规模,但它有助于提升产业发展的层次和水平。

2.4 制度厚度(Institutional thickness)

制度经济地理学认为经济活动是特定的社会和制度情景的产物,必须置于更广的社会的、政治的规则、程序和传统中去理解[63],由此产生了制度厚度的概念。制度厚度是包括机构之间相互作用与协同、多个主体的集体认同、共同的产业目的,以及分享的文化规范和价值等因素的有机结合[49],通过加强区域不同行为主体间的信任和互惠,形成一套共同认可的行为、支撑和操作规范[64, 65]。中国处于快速发展与转型期,在社会经济运行及制度和治理机制上存在许多独特性,中央和地方政府及其实施的政策、制度及治理机制,对于产业空间分布具有引导、强化和限制等作用[66]。对于处于形成和发展期的产业而言,“企业家型政府”通过系列制度创新与政策安排,使制度厚度持续变“厚”,不断增强对产业发展的支持、协调和粘性作用,对于促进产业空间集聚具有重要意义。

本文试图在演化和制度经济地理学理论支撑下,构建区位机会窗口、金融机构衍生、区域产业分叉、制度厚度“四位一体”的分析框架(图1),来剖析以郑东新区为代表的内陆区域中心城市金融业空间集聚现象。这些区域的金融业集聚,是以下因素交互作用、协同演化的结果。① 金融机构从无到有、数量从少到多、从小到大,主要受到区位机会窗口打开、金融机构衍生的影响。在制度环境与静态集聚经济的作用下,产业发展的区位机会窗口打开,当迈过关键门槛后,收益递增应运而生,知识溢出、基础设施和信息共享等使更多企业集聚在这一区域;在衍生机制作用下,金融机构数量不断增多。② 金融业新业态不断涌现、发展水平从低到高、辐射和影响力从弱到强,这是更高层次的金融业集聚的过程,主要受到区位机会窗口打开、区域产业分叉的影响。在政府政策扶持、实体经济发展需求、集聚经济的作用下,区位机会窗口持续打开,区域产业分叉使行业新业态/产业门类出现,行业发展水平、质量和影响力不断提升。而金融机构数量增加、新业态/新产业门类出现,又共同促进了金融业空间集聚。③ 区位机会窗口打开、金融机构衍生、区域产业分叉等机制的发挥,离不开产业发展所必需的制度环境、制度安排及其协调机制。由此,引入制度厚度的概念,并将其同区位机会窗口、衍生、区域产业分叉整合在一起来解释金融业空间集聚机理,认为“企业家型政府”主导下制度厚度的形成与持续加强,是其他三种机制得以发挥的重要条件。

图1 “四位一体”的理论分析框架 Fig. 1 An analytical framework of financial industry agglomeration

3 研究对象与数据来源
3.1 研究对象概况

郑东新区是河南省金融业发展水平和集聚程度最高、金融业态最为丰富、最具发展潜力和活力的区域,也是郑州建设区域性金融中心的核心支撑载体。到2015年,郑东新区汇聚金融机构265家,涵盖金融监管机构、银行、证券、保险、期货、基金、信托、财务公司、要素市场、资产管理、金融后台、金融租赁、融资担保与小额贷款等金融业态(图2)。郑东新区金融机构各项贷款余额、存款余额、保险机构保费收入分别占河南省的64%、70%和52%。金融业已成为支撑郑东新区经济发展的主导力量,金融业增加值从2010年的30.4亿元提升到2015年的133.6亿元,年均增长34.5%。金融业增加值占第三产业和GDP的比重分别达到58%和51%(图3),金融业税收占郑东新区的比重达46%。

图2 2015年郑东新区金融机构类型 Fig. 2 Category of financial institutions in Zhengdong New District in 2015

图3 2010-2015年郑东新区金融业增加值及占第三产业比重 Fig. 3 Added value of financial industry and its proportion in tertiary industry in Zhengdong New District in 2010-2015

3.2 数据与资料来源

① 金融机构问卷调查数据。本文分别设计了郑东新区金融业总体发展情况调查问卷与金融机构网络联系调查问卷,通过郑东新区管委会金融服务局进行发放与回收。两类问卷各发放106分,分别回收85份和72份,去除无效问卷后剩余71份、55份,占发放问卷的比重为67.0%、51.9%(表1)。② 访谈资料。通过对中国人民银行郑州中心支行、河南银监局、河南省金融办、郑东新区管委会金融服务局等政府部门及金融监管机构负责人进行访谈,主要了解郑东新区金融业形成与发展历程、总体概况、相关政策与制度支持、发展目标与规划等;对银行、保险、证券、基金、投资担保公司等13家金融机构负责人进行了访谈,主要涉及金融机构落户郑东新区的主要原因、发展现状、与其他金融机构间的互动与网络联系等。③ 统计数据。主要来自《郑州统计年鉴(2003-2015)》、郑东新区第三次全国经济普查单位数据、郑东新区金融机构统计名录(2015)等。④ 郑东新区相关规划及年度工作总结。主要包括郑州郑东新区金融投资环境研究报告、郑东新区金融城建设发展规划、郑东新区管委会年度工作总结(2003-2014)、郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区年度金融工作总结(2012-2014)等。

表1 问卷调查及深度访谈的构成 Tab. 1 The proportion of questionnaires and interviews
4 郑东新区金融产业集聚的动因

一定的经济规模及其产生的资金流动和金融交易需求,是金融业发展的重要保障。河南省是全国重要的粮食、能源原材料基地,正处于工业化加速发展阶段,经济总量连续多年位居全国第5位,以郑州为中心的中原城市群综合实力位居中西部地区前列,为郑东新区金融业发展提供了广阔的经济腹地支撑。按照金融机构增长状况,可将郑东新区金融业发展历程划分为3个阶段(图4):起步阶段(2003-2006年),年均新增金融机构5家;快速发展阶段(2007-2011年),年均新增金融机构15家;全面提升阶段(2012年至今),年均新增金融机构34家。

图4 2003年以来郑东新区新增金融机构数量 Fig. 4 The number of newly established financial institutions in Zhengdong New District since 2003

4.1 区位机会窗口的首次打开:郑东新区建设投融资需求

21世纪以来,为了加快推进拥有1亿人口的河南省城镇化步伐,河南省委省政府提出中心城市带动战略,试图将郑州打造成为全国区域性中心城市,提升城市辐射力和综合带动能力。在此背景下,郑州提出了规划建设郑东新区的战略,以破解郑州中心城区规模小、发展空间受制于陇海和京广铁路分割的困境,拉大郑州的城市框架和城市规模。城市新区建设是高起点城市化过程,征地拆迁和补偿安置、道路交通等基础设施建设、商业住宅项目开发、入驻企业固定资产投资等,产生了巨量的资金需求。2003-2008年,郑东新区开工建设基础设施和公益设施项目267个,累计完成固定资产投资612.6亿元。2003-2012年,累计完成投资近1600亿元(图5),建成房屋面积3500万m2,建成区面积80 km2。城市新区建设的巨大资金需求吸引了商业银行的关注,2003年中国农业银行郑东支行成立,成为当时郑东新区唯一的支行级商业银行机构,发放的第一笔融资贷款为15亿元。2003-2006年,中国农业银行、中国工商银行等金融机构为郑东新区优化和盘活资产、基础设施项目建设、企业融资等累计投资超过100亿元,为郑东东区开发建设提供了坚实的资金保障。

图5 2003-2012年郑东新区基础设施建设累计项目数及投资额 Fig. 5 The projects and accumulated investment of infrastructure construction in Zhengdong New District in 2003-2012

郑东新区规划建设面积115 km2, 人口150万人。东区的建设项目已经引起了多家银行的关注和参与,谁在新区建设项目上先行一步,就可能为将来的竞争奠定基础。

——访谈记录:某商业银行河南省分行行长

4.2 金融机构衍生:金融机构数量的快速增长与网络联系的加强

借鉴制造业“企业衍生”的概念[35, 36],将金融机构衍生界定为两个方面:第一,已有金融机构新建服务网点以及分支部门;第二,现有金融机构从业人员从原机构脱离,在本区域建立新的金融及相关机构,并开展与原机构相同或具有紧密联系的金融业务。金融机构的衍生,不仅使金融机构数量增加,而且密切了金融业内部不同机构之间的联系、交流和互动,为金融业集群化发展起到重要的催化作用。

4.2.1 商业银行新建营业服务网点

2006年前,郑东新区共有工商银行、农业银行、中国银行、郑州银行、邮政储蓄银行、农村信用社等股份制商业银行网点23家。2006年之后,新增建设银行、民生银行等股份制商业银行,到2015年共有银行网点63家(表2)。2006年以来新衍生的银行业网点及分支部门占郑东新区银行业的比重达63.5%。其中,邮政储蓄银行、农村信用合作社等机构新增营业网点数量占现有网点数量的比重超过75%;民生银行和建设银行高达100%。2006年以前,中国建设银行在郑东新区没有一家营业网点,2006年以来建设银行实现了从无到有与从小到大的转变,先后在郑东新区创办了1家分行以及11家支行,成为郑东新区拥有营业网点最多的股份制商业银行。中国建设银行郑州东区分行的成立具有特别而重大的意义,它是在中原经济区上升为国家战略后,为抢抓发展机遇、服务地方经济社会发展、支持中原经济区建设,经中国建设银行总行特批成立的。这是一家高起点、高标准、高规格的综合性二级分行,也是郑东新区首家综合性二级分行,对郑东新区金融业扩大服务规模、提升服务质量和水平,具有示范作用。

表2 2006年后郑东新区各银行新增数量 Tab. 2 The number of newly established banks in Zhengdong New District since 2006

4.2.2 商业银行衍生出担保公司等相关金融机构

银行在支持小微企业发展方面承担着重要职责。但是,商业银行的贷款门槛普遍较高,导致小微企业的融资较为困难。2008年国际金融危机以来,小微企业对于资金的需求催生了郑东新区投资担保公司、小额贷款公司的快速发展。这些公司的主要业务人员,同相关金融机构特别是银行的联系较为紧密,很多都曾经是相关银行的工作人员。他们在掌握一定的客户资源后,从原来工作的银行脱离出来,创建投资担保公司、小额贷款公司。由于这些公司员工与银行存在紧密的合作联系,银行也会将不符合其贷款程序的小微企业,介绍给相关的投资担保公司或小额贷款公司。在2012年高峰时期,郑东新区的投资担保公司曾达到130多家。同时,还有一些银行等传统金融机构的离职人员,开办了基金管理、保险中介、银行卡服务、资产评估等金融相关机构。

我们公司高层管理人员全部由资深金融业从业人员和具有丰富管理经验的银行高级管理人员担任。公司职员60%拥有金融业或相关行业从业经验。

——访谈记录:某投资基金有限公司董事长

为了更好地服务广大客户,我们特别与交通银行、广发银行、郑州银行联手合作,为中小企业主、个体工商户等经营商户提供全程担保,打造便捷的融资担保渠道,提高资金运作效率。

——访谈记录:某投资担保有限公司总经理

从金融机构联系问卷调查数据可以看出(表3),上级总部—分支机构联系频率排名第一,选择密切的样本比重达到71.8%,较密切的12.7%,两者合计84.5%。政府业务部门—金融机构联系频率排名第二,选择密切和较密切的样本比重达70.4%,印证了相关金融监管及政府业务部门在郑东新区金融业发展过程中起到重要作用。金融机构—相关服务企业的联系频率排名第三,选择密切和较密切的样本比重达63.4%,表明商业银行与其衍生出来的担保公司、小额贷款公司等金融机构之间的联系在郑东新区金融业集聚网络中占据重要位置。

表3 金融机构联系情况(%) Tab. 3 The relation among financial institutions and other actors
4.3 金融产业分叉:金融新业态的创生与高端要素的集聚

4.3.1 开放发展和集聚经济为金融业升级持续打开区位机会窗口

开放发展是河南省重要的发展战略。2012年郑州获批跨境贸易电子商务服务试点,2015年试点总业务量是其他试点城市的总和;2013年开通的郑欧班列已成为集货货源地最广、货物种类最多、目的地分拨地域最广、满载率最高的中欧班列。在承接新一轮产业转移过程中,河南发挥交通区位、劳动力和能源原材料等优势,实际利用省外资金额从2008年的1849.2亿元提升至2015年的7821.5亿元,年均增长25.4%(图6)。随着国家粮食生产核心区、中原经济区、郑州航空港经济综合试验区等国家战略的持续推进,河南开放平台载体日益完善,对金融服务创新和业态创新提出了更多更高的需求。

图6 2008-2015年河南省实际利用省外资金及增速 Fig. 6 The direct investment from other provinces in Henan in 2008-2015

集聚经济对产业空间集聚具有决定性影响。集聚经济通常被分为城市化经济和地方化经济。城市化经济主要源自不同产业的集聚,地方化经济主要源自同一或相关产业的集聚[67]。郑东新区以总部经济为特征的楼宇经济渐成规模,税收达亿元的楼宇数量20幢,全球财富500强企业中有47家、国内500强企业中有57家在此设立有分支机构。高端商贸业快速发展,累计入驻各类商贸企业4868家,年营业收入超亿元的商贸企业50家,超10亿元商贸企业12家。科技研发快速发展,累计入驻各类科技型企业127家,研发(检测)中心42家。与金融配套的会计师事务所、审计师事务所、律师事务所、信用评级机构、资产评估机构、投资咨询、资金和保险经纪等专业中介机构等不断在郑东新区集聚。城市化经济和地方化经济的共同发展,促进集聚经济效应不断增强,加速了金融新业态的出现和金融创新,促进了高端要素的汇集。

河南省对郑东新区的关注和支持、良好的经济发展态势、郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设不断加速,已经吸引了国内外相关金融机构的广泛关注,我们入驻东区就是要与主要金融机构建立联系,共同发展。

——访谈记录:某商业银行河南省分行行长

当前,入驻郑东新区的河南省和郑州市行政事业单位、大型企业集团总部、知名房地产开发企业、创新型和成长型中小企业、高学历高收入的高端人才,都是我们银行非常看重和关注的。

——访谈记录:某商业银行郑东支行行长

4.3.2 区域产业分叉催生金融科技(FinTech)与互联网金融等新业态不断涌现

(1)金融科技与互联网金融快速发展。金融科技以技术为基础,并且专注于金融产品与服务价值链上的一部分或多部分,主要包括支付、科技支持型借贷、保险科技、资产管理科技和资金筹集等。互联网金融是传统金融机构与互联网企业利用互联网技术和信息通信技术实现资金融通、支付、投资和信息中介服务的新型金融业务模式。无论金融科技还是互联网金融,均是在金融机构数字能力变革、中小微企业及个人投融资需求引导下,基于区域已有金融业发展基础与组织惯例,在系列制度安排与政策环境的影响下,与移动互联网、云计算和区块链为代表的新金融技术紧密结合而形成的新的金融业态与组织惯例。二者的快速发展,既是金融业通过运用科技手段变革金融业生产方式进而提高金融生产力的一种创新活动,也是金融业产业分叉(branching)的过程。郑东新区良好的政策环境、快速增长的经济实力、完善的网络基础设施,为金融科技及互联网金融的发展提供了重要基础。2014年上线的河南正信金融超市,是采用互联网技术、线上和线下同时开展业务的互联网金融超市,通过与银行、证券、担保、融资租赁等相关金融机构以及评估公司、会计师事务所、律师事务所等服务机构的业务合作,为中小微企业提供银行贷款、证券融资、担保业务、财务审计、法律咨询、资产评估等全方位、个性化的金融信息咨询服务。

(2)建立区域性股权交易市场。为满足促进中小微企业的融资、服务科技创新和技术转化、增强区域金融市场活力、建设多层次的资本市场体系的要求,2015年9月河南省在郑州东区成立了中原股权交易中心。该中心属于区域性股权交易市场,是主板、创业板、新三板之外的“四板市场”,为河南中小股份制企业登陆新三板和主板等高层次交易场所提供孵化服务和支持。到2015年底,中原股权交易中心共有挂牌交易板企业17家、展示板企业216家。

(3)成立河南省首家法人保险公司。河南省是全国重要的粮食生产核心区,粮食和农业生产大省,农业信贷资金、产权抵押贷款、灾害救助、农业风险保障等现代金融需求持续提升。2015年5月中原农业保险股份有限公司获得中国保监会批复成立,成为河南省首家保险法人机构。该公司积极服务三农建设,防范和化解农业生产风险,是金融业产业分叉的一个典型案例。

(4)金融后台集聚发展。金融后台具有科技含量高、吸收就业多、辐射范围广等特点,是建设区域金融中心的重要组成部分。目前,郑东新区吸引了中华保险全国性共享后援中心、中国民生银行郑州战略研发服务基地以及中国人寿、太平洋保险的数据中心、后援中心、电销中心、信息中心等后台机构落户。国内保险公司前八强中已有4家在郑东新区建设有全国或区域性后台服务中心。

4.4 制度厚度的形成与强化:企业家型政府主导下持续的政策扶持与制度安排

4.4.1 各级政府出台鼓励金融机构入驻的支持办法

国务院《关于支持河南省加快建设中原经济区的指导意见》(国发〔2011〕32号)、《关于大力实施促进中部地区崛起战略的若干意见》(国发〔2012〕43号)和《中原经济区规划》等,明确提出加快郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设,在国家层面明确了郑东新区金融业发展的战略定位。河南省先后出台了《关于促进金融业持续健康发展的若干意见》(豫发〔2007〕16号)、《关于郑州区域性金融中心建设规划纲要》(豫政办〔2007〕112号)、《关于进一步加强金融工作加快金融业发展的意见》(豫政〔2012〕40号)、《加快郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设实施方案》(豫政办〔2015〕18号)等支持文件;郑州市出台了《关于进一步加快郑州区域性金融中心建设的意见》(郑政〔2007〕33号)、《关于鼓励金融机构入驻郑州的意见(试行)》(郑政〔2011〕56号)等支持文件;郑东新区管委会出台了《郑东新区重点产业发展的若干管理办法(暂行)》、《郑东新区加快重点产业发展的扶持办法(暂行)》等政策性文件,明确了金融产业准入标准和扶持政策。为了吸引和支持相关金融机构入驻郑东新区,河南省、郑州市及郑东新区在金融机构进驻、办公用房购买和租赁、经营补贴等方面给予扶持和奖励(表4)。此外,在重点金融机构、新兴金融业态、配套设施完善等方面出台针对性扶持政策,增强郑东新区对各类金融机构的吸引力。新设立金融机构必须在郑东新区进行工商登记注册,鼓励区外金融机构迁址郑东新区。

当时称为二次招商,主要瞄准在郑州的金融机构及总部,想把他们都弄到郑东新区来。他们都不愿意来,我们通过省政府与他们沟通、做了很多工作,盖好办公和家属楼,他们才愿意过来。

——访谈记录:郑东新区金融服务局负责人

省委省政府非常明确,以后只要是进入河南市场、到河南来的金融机构,力争都放到郑东新区,全面加速东区金融中心建设。

——访谈记录:郑东新区管委会负责人

省、市主要领导高度关注郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设。省长、常务副省长多次拜访花旗银行、星展银行等,推动外资金融机构落户郑东新区;郑州市、郑东新区主要领导也多次拜访招商银行、交通银行、中国人寿等重点金融机构,邀请其入驻郑州,并举办相关推介会。

——访谈记录:郑东新区金融服务局负责人

4.4.2 建立推动金融业发展的体制机制

河南省政府成立了由常务副省长任组长,省直有关单位、“一行三局”主要负责同志为成员的郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设协调小组;郑州市政府成立了由市长任组长的郑东新区金融集聚核心功能区建设领导小组;郑东新区成立了以推动金融业聚集、建设金融中心为基本职责的金融服务局,专业负责各类金融机构对接、洽谈、入驻等工作。在省政府的支持下,建立了郑东新区金融问题会商机制,与省金融办、人民银行郑州中心支行、银监局、证监局、保监局等金融监管部门的联席会议制度,共同研究解决金融改革创新中的体制机制和政策问题,并通过其争取国家、省级层面行业主管部门的指导和支持。郑东新区管委会建立了专家顾问咨询机制,邀请来自中国社会科学院、中央财经大学、西安交通大学等高校的专家学者,以及来自中国股权投资基金协会、中国期货业协会、中国银行业研究中心的业界专家担任金融产业发展顾问。此外,建立了对外交流机制,与北京西城区政府、上海陆家嘴金融贸易区管委会等建立长期的战略合作伙伴关系,筹备中原国际金融论坛等各种形式的金融交流与研讨活动。

表4 各级政府对金融业发展的扶持政策 Tab. 4 The supporting policies for financial industry in government at different levels
5 结论与讨论

(1)郑东新区金融业发展案例表明,金融业集聚是区位机会窗口持续打开、金融机构快速衍生、区域产业不断分叉、制度厚度持续强化四方面因素相互作用的动态过程。在金融业集聚发展的起步阶段,承载着引领全国第一人口大省城市化进程的郑东新区,其开发建设为金融业发展打开了区位机会窗口;在快速发展阶段,金融机构衍生是金融业集聚和集群化发展的重要内生动力;在全面提升阶段,区域产业分叉是金融业态创新和高端要素集聚的主导力量;在“企业家型政府”的主导下,持续的政策支持与有效的制度安排贯穿郑东新区金融业集聚的全过程。演化和制度经济地理学在制造业领域得到应用的相关理论,也在一定程度上适用于金融业这一知识密集型服务业。但是,与制造业领域的企业衍生不同,金融业主要集中于已有机构的衍生,不存在从大学实验室和科研机构衍生出相关企业的实践[68]

(2)区位机会窗口、企业/机构衍生、区域产业分叉、制度厚度“四位一体”的分析框架,不仅对于以郑东新区为代表的内陆地区金融业空间集聚具有较强的解释力,在一定程度上也适用于制造业的空间集聚。首先,区位机会窗口打开是新产业发展并形成空间集聚的重要机遇和必要条件,无论是金融为代表的生产性服务业还是制造业,其发展和空间集聚都需要特定的区位机会窗口。但是,当新产业形成和发展的区位机会窗口降临时,并不是所有的区域都可以打开区位机会窗口,这与区域产业发展的政策与协调机制等息息相关,也受到本地、国家和全球力量的匹配程度的影响。其次,在产业初步形成之后,衍生是影响产业发展壮大并形成空间集聚的重要力量。在产业生命周期的不同阶段,衍生机制的发挥对于产业空间集聚具有不同的影响:在早期阶段,衍生带来集聚经济,对产业空间集聚产生正的反馈机制;但到了后期阶段或者达到某个临界值后,伴随着集聚经济的增强,企业间的竞争不断加剧,会导致新进入企业数量减少,这种负反馈机制意味着空间集聚不会无限制地进行下去。本文中的郑东新区金融业,还处于产业生命周期的早期阶段,衍生对于产业空间集聚带来的是正向反馈的自增强机制。再次,区域产业分叉对于产业新业态创生和高端要素集聚具有重要意义。能否产生区域产业分叉,与区域多样化与相关多样性水平、已有产业的技术关联程度息息相关[55]。无论是金融业还是制造业,区域产业分叉的产生均会受到知识和技术扩散、劳动力流动的影响。

(3)演化经济地理学的相关实证研究对制度作用的忽视,已经遭到了学者们的批判[69]。区域相关政策与制度安排是区位机会窗口打开、企业衍生活动、区域产业分叉的必要支撑条件,制度厚度的形成和强化影响着产业空间集聚以及发展演化的全进程。在企业家型政府的主导下,强力的政策和组织支持、系列的制度安排、不断推进的体制机制改革、持续优化的发展环境,使郑东新区金融业发展的制度厚度不断实现“厚而有效”(think and work),并成为理解欠发达地区金融业空间集聚的关键。相对于以技术为核心的制造业,以服务和标准为核心的金融业对于制度创新的要求更为强烈和迫切,对制度厚度的粘性作用有着更深的依赖,金融相关领域的开放与否、优惠政策的制定与实施,将直接影响金融业发展与集聚。

(4)郑东新区所代表的内陆中心城市金融集聚,属于典型的政府主导型金融产业集聚,与纽约、伦敦等市场自发形成的金融产业集群有较大差异。从形成动力看,市场自发形成的金融业集聚由较强的经济实力和对外贸易推动形成;政府主导型金融业集聚由于产业支撑相对不足或金融市场发展滞后,依靠市场的力量在短期难以形成有效的空间集聚,政府的政策供给以及相关制度安排乃成为金融业空间集聚的主要推手。从发展演化路径看,市场自发形成的金融业集聚遵循“经济与贸易增长—金融市场发展—金融制度完善—金融机构集聚—金融产业集群”的发展路径;政府主导型金融业集聚呈现了“制度与政策供给—金融市场发展—金融机构集聚”的路径。从政策取向上看,市场自发形成的金融业自由度和开放度较高,集聚的产生和演化是自下而上的过程,主要通过市场与产业互动来实现,政府的作用主要是规划引导、完善规章制度、提升服务水平等;政府主导型金融集聚受到政府的干预程度较高,集聚的产生和演化是自上而下的过程,从吸引金融机构入驻到金融市场的拓展、金融发展环境构建等,都是政府政策支持的结果。郑东新区等政府主导型金融产业集聚,后续发展过程中还需不断强化实体经济支撑及市场机制的发挥、着力增强金融机构之间的网络互动与联系,才能实现由金融产业集聚向产业集群以及区域金融中心的根本性转变。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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[李小建, 周雄飞, 卫春江, . 发展中地区银行业空间系统变化. 地理学报, 2007, 61(4): 414-424.]
基于对中国发展中地区的河南省的第一手调查数据,对经济水平较低、受外部影响较小但增长迅速的内陆省份银行业空间系统变化进行了量化分析和解释。结果表明,与国际上发达国家相同,中国发展中地区的国有银行业逐步向中心城市集中。其中,作为区域中心的地级城市的地位上升最为突出。其形成原因主要与制度变化有关;而区域经济的发展差异,又是促进该趋势的直接诱因。这一观点通过混合OLS模型模拟得到证明。城市内部的银行业区位变化,具有一些与发达国家的不同之处。区域经济快速发展带来了中心城市的迅速拓展。同时经济结构调整,又带来了城市内不同地区经济发展水平的变化。由此形成了银行业区位的不断扩散,新兴快速增长的地区,迅速吸引了一批银行的建立。对郑州市58家银行网点的调查表明,在1978年之前,银行网点设立十分遵循计划体制的安排;而在1979年以后,邻近地段“人均收入水平高:决定着相当一部分银行网点的布局。这从微观角度佐证了河南省的分析结论。金融系统的集中格局,为非中心地区经济发展带来的不利影响,应该给予关注。
[20] Dai Zhimin, Zhu Liyan. The influence of geographical distribution of commercial bank loan on the bank profit efficiency in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2015, 70(6): 955-964.
The regional development research on commercial banks has always been the focus of financial geography research. At present, there is still debate on whether the geographical decentralization level of commercial bank loan can positively influence bank performance. This paper uses the loan data of 13 listed commercial banks in China releasing to each province during 2007-2013 to analyze the loan releasing geographical distribution characteristics of large-sized commercial banks and small and medium-sized commercial banks and the geographic variation trend of non-performing loans. On such basis, it uses stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and the basic model of Battese and Collie (1995) to build the trans-log profit function model to conduct empirical analysis of the influence of geographical decentralization level of commercial bank loan on the efficiency of bank profits. Research results show that: (1) Increasing the geographical decentralization level of loan can boost the revenue and profit efficiency for commercial banks in the process of banking operation; (2) Large-sized commercial banks, due to the effect of national policies, cover broader loan releasing areas, and the loan releasing proportion in the central and western regions is significantly higher than that of the small and medium-sized commercial banks, and the average profit efficiency has always been higher than that of the small and medium-sized commercial banks. However, in recent years, with the gradually increasing geographical decentralization level of small and medium-sized commercial banks loan, the gap of profit efficiency between the two has been narrowed; (3) At present, the loan business of some small and medium-sized commercial banks in China still belongs to the relationship loan, and raising the geographical decentralization level of loan will lower their profit efficiency. Therefore, the diversified business operation should be carefully handled and cannot blindly follow it.
[本文引用:1]
[戴志敏, 朱莉妍. 中国商业银行贷款地理分布对银行利润效率的影响. 地理学报, 2015, 70(6): 955-964.]
商业银行的区域发展研究一直是金融地理研究中关注的重点。目前,对于商业银行贷款投放地理分散化程度能否为银行绩效带来正面的影响仍存在着一定的争议。本文在利用2007-2013年中国13家上市商业银行向各省投放的贷款数据,分析了大型商业银行和中小型商业银行的贷款投放地理分布特征及不良贷款的地理变化趋势的基础上,利用随机前沿分析方法(SFA)及Battese和Collie的基础模型构建超越对数利润函数模型,对商业银行贷款地理投放分散程度对银行利润效率的影响进行了实证分析。研究结果表明:① 商业银行提高贷款的地理投放程度有助于提升商业银行经营过程中的盈利和利润效率。② 大型商业银行由于受国家政策干预影响较大,贷款投放区域覆盖面更广,尤其是对中西部地区的贷款投放比例明显高于中小型商业银行,其平均利润效率一直高于中小型商业银行。但近年来,随着中小型商业银行贷款地理分散程度逐步提高,两者利润效率的差距逐渐缩小。③ 目前,中国部分中小型商业银行贷款业务依然以关系型为主,提高贷款的地理投放分散程度会降低其利润效率,应谨慎面对多元化经营问题,不可盲目随从。
DOI:10.11821/dlxb201506009     
[21] Liu Hui, Shen Yuming, Liu Kun. The financial services industry development level and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2013, 68(2): 186-198.
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[刘辉, 申玉铭, 柳坤. 中国城市群金融服务业发展水平及空间格局. 地理学报, 2013, 68(2): 186-198.]
城市群成为国家经济建设的重要载体,满足城市群产业发展和基础设施建设资金需求,优化金融资源在城市群之间合理配置,摸清城市群金融服务业发展水平状况,显得尤为重要.本研究采用金融相关比率、金融发展效率、保险密度和保险深度等指标体系,通过多指标综合评价方法,定量分析23 个城市群银行、保险和证券等金融服务业发展水平的空间差异和格局.结果表明:① 城市群内金融服务业综合发展水平差异性较大,在空间上形成东部沿海高于西部和中部的空间格局,其中,长三角城市群、京津冀城市群、珠三角城市群发展水平较高.② 城市群金融发展水平滞后于城市群发育水平.其中金融发展效率和保险密度是影响金融服务业综合发展水平的主要因素之一,而金融服务业从业人员多少和城乡居民储蓄额大小影响较小;另外,区域产业结构,特别是上市产业(可交易产品) 结构与城市群金融服务业发展水平相关性大.③ 银行、保险和证券服务业在城市群内部差异较大,京津冀城市群、长三角城市群和珠三角城市群金融资源拥有量占到23 个城市群的50%以上,影响和主导着中国金融业发展.
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[贺灿飞, 傅蓉. 外资银行在中国的区位选择. 地理学报, 2009, 64(6): 701-712.]
金融业渐进式准入制度直接影响外资银行进入中国市场。伴随改革开放进程,外资银行最初聚集于经济特区和北京,进而扩散到上海、天津、大连和广州,以致于中西部城市,如重庆、成都和西安。外资银行的分行支行尤为聚集于珠三角、长三角和京津等经济发达地区,代表处则偏好聚集于北京和上海。条件逻辑模型统计结果表明,外资银行所有权优势、内部化优势和中国城市的区位优势,尤其是制度优势和银行业规模经济优势共同影响外资银行分支机构在中国的区位选择。外资银行尤为偏好金融规模效应显著、对外资银行准入管制较少的贸易型城市,央行总部及其区域性分行所在城市也是外资银行偏好的区位。由于代表处与分行或支行的功能差异,两者的区位行为存在一定不同。
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本文重点探讨了金融中心的聚集效应和外部规模经济效应,并运用企业区位选择理论分析了金融机构选址决策的重要决定因素,重点分析了在金融中心城市的竞争中,吸引金融机构空间聚集的地方政府有所作为的四大领域:地区成本优势、人力资源的规模与质量、电信设施的先进性与安全可靠性以及监管环境与税收制度.
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本文从"不对称信息"和"信息腹地"理论出发,以中国为例,讨论了影响现代金融中心发展的决定因素.本文还以国内外企业总部在国内四城市的分布调查企业总部选址成因,从而分析"不对称信息"在总部选址决定中的区域效应.
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This study presents a theory of financial infrastructure - or the set of rules, institutions, and systems within which agents carry out financial transactions. It investigates the effects of financial infrastructure development on financial architecture and real capital accumulation, taking into account financial-sector special interests. It shows that a more developed infrastructure promotes financial market growth, reduces the scope of traditional banking, and helps investors make more efficient investment decisions. The theory presented explains why traditional banking predominates in the early stages of economic development and becomes relatively less important as the economy develops, and why banks may retard financial sector development. The study provides evidence in support of its predictions.
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近年来,金融产业集聚如火如荼 的发展起来,并有效推动了当地及其周边的经济发展。本文根据金融产业集聚的产生背景,将金融产业集聚的影响因素归纳为地理位置、经济效应、贸易需求、政府 推动和基础设施等五个方面。基于此,笔者利用我国2000—2009年31个省市的样本数据,采用面板数据方法中的固定效应模型进行实证检验,结果证明了 经济效应、贸易需求、政府支持、地理位置等对金融产业集聚程度具有正向影响,并在此基础上提出了发展我国金融产业集聚的对策和建议。
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产业的空间集聚是经济活动最突出的地理特征,也是一个世界性的经济现象。产业集聚一直是经济地理学、区域经济学、管理学等相关学科研究的主要问题之一,特别是20世纪90年代以来,产业集聚成为经济学和地理学的热点课题。本文重点回顾了产业区位论、新产业区理论以及新经济地理理论等对产业集聚的理论阐述。并从产业集聚的影响因素和产业集聚效应两个方面综述了近年来国内外有关产业集聚的实证研究,突出了要素禀赋、外部性、规模经济等在产业集聚形成过程中的重要作用,并指出了产业集聚形成后对产业区位、产业增长以及区域经济增长产生的影响。最后对国内产业集聚研究现状进行了总结。
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本文利用陆家嘴金融创新问卷调查和面对面访谈等实地调研资料,对上海陆家嘴的金融集聚动因进行了较为深入的探讨。研究发现,邻近金融中心市场、共享知名品牌、金融友善型政府、良好的政策法规是促进其金融集聚的主要动因;而我国金融政策环境开放度不高、金融产业水平较低、市场规模不大、中介服务机构不足则正成为影响陆家嘴金融集聚的主要不利因素。
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20世纪80年代以来,国际学术界出现了两种以企业行为的分析为基础解释产业空间集聚的"新经济地理学"理论模型:地理学中的"新经济与工业地理学"和经济学中的"地理经济学"。本文从理论起源、产业集聚的成因、市场结构的性质、外部经济的类型、交易关系与根植性、产业集聚的机制等方面对二者进行了系统的比较分析。
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20世纪70年代末期以来, “产业区”作为经济全球化背景下世界经济发展中最具有活力的区域而受到学术界的高度重视。伴随着研究的深入,相继形成了一些侧重点有所不同的理论学派,如 弹性专业化学派、新的产业空间学派、创新环境学派、产业集群学派、区域创新系统学派、第二级城市学派等。本文重点阐释了各个学派的产生与发展过程、理论基 础和主要观点,分析了各个学派的优点及其局限性,在此基础上探讨了通过学习型产业区的理论建构而对这些学派进行互补、整合的基本途径。
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20 世纪80 年代以来,产业集群成为一种新的区域发展模式,受到理论工作者和政策制定者越来越多的关注。近些年来,从演化经济地理学理论学派的视角研究产业集群形成的动力、演化路径成为集群研究中的热点之一。本文首先介绍了产业集群形成的传统解释及其不足,然后回顾了演化经济地理学视角下的产业集群形成的研究进展,并总结了研究特点和主要研究思路,最后指出了在中国应用研究中需要注意的问题。
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This article aims to describe and explain the spatial evolution of the automobile sector in Great Britain from an evolutionary perspective. This analysis is based on a unique database of all entries and exits in this sector during the period 1895–1968, collected by the authors. Cox regressions show that spinoff dynamics, agglomeration economies and time of entry have had a significant effect on the survival rate of automobile firms during the period 1895–1968.
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The agglomeration of the automobile industry around Detroit, Michigan is explained using a theory in which disagreements lead employees of incumbent firms to found spinoffs in the same industry. Predictions of the theory concerning entry and firm survival are tested using data on the origin, location, and years of production of every entrant into the industry from 1895 to 1966. The geographic concentration of the industry is attributed to four early successful entrants and the many successful spinoffs they spawned in the Detroit area and not to conventional agglomeration economies benefiting co-located firms, as featured in modern theories of agglomeration. Implications of the findings regarding firm strategy are discussed.
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We trace the geographic and intellectual heritage of the early entrants into the US tire industry in Ohio, the industry’s historical center. We test a model in which the supply of capable entrants, localized knowledge, and production externalities influence where entrants originated and located. Entry clustered around existing tire producers and in more populated regions, which we attribute mainly to the supply of capable entrants. Production externalities influenced the profitability of operating in a region, but their effect was limited by the localized knowledge of entrants. Entry fueled agglomeration mainly through an endogenous process governing the supply of capable entrants.
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This paper investigates the spatial clustering of the book publishing industry. By means of a hazard model, we examine the effect of agglomeration economies and pre-entry entrepreneurial experience on the survival chances of publishing firms. Whereas such survival analyses have been conducted for manufacturing industries, they are still scarce for cultural and service industries. Based on a unique dataset of all book publishers founded between 1880 and 2008 in the Netherlands, the paper demonstrates that the clustering of book publishers in the Amsterdam region did not increase the survival of Amsterdam firms. Instead, prior experience in publishing and related industries had a positive effect on firm survival. The Amsterdam cluster was characterized by high entry and exit levels mainly. Interestingly, the Amsterdam cluster did not function as an attractor for publishing firms from other regions, but rather acted as an incubator for firms that relocated to other regions.
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The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial driver for agents to connect and exchange knowledge, but too much proximity between agents on any of the dimensions might harm their innovative performance at the same time. In a study on knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry, we test this so-called proximity paradox empirically. We found evidence that the proximity paradox holds to a considerable degree. Our study clearly showed that cognitive, social, organizational and geographical proximity were crucial for explaining the knowledge network of the Dutch aviation industry. However, we found strong evidence that too much cognitive proximity lowered firms鈥 innovative performance, and organizational proximity did not have an effect.
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[5] Clark G L.London in the European financial services industry: Locational advantage and product complementarities. Journal of Economic Geography, 2002, 2(4): 433-453.
If its prospects were doubted in the early 1990s, London is now the pre-eminent international financial centre. It dominates its European rivals and is joined with New York and Tokyo in a non-stop reciprocal global embrace. Whereas some analysts approach this topic concentrating on the nature and quality of market relationships in London, others emphasise the role that government regulation has played in promoting the growth of the City of London with respect to its European rivals. Here, I elaborate the logic whereby financial products and services are produced at a particular point in space even if financial trading is an increasingly ubiquitous virtual activity. I emphasise the competitive dynamics of the financial services industry, the complementary qualities of financial products, and the place of London in corporate global transactions systems. I mean to show that the production of financial products has been brought to ground (so to speak) in London for a variety of (perhaps non-replicable) reasons. In this regard, my argument is clearly at odds with those analysts of information and communication technology who proclaim the end of geography. However, my argument sits uncomfortably with those who insist upon the persistence and co-existence of different national financial systems. Implications are drawn for the role of London in the evolving integrated European market for financial services, and for the future of continental European financial centres. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.
DOI:10.1093/jeg/2.4.433      [本文引用:1]
[6] Pan Fenghua, Xu Xiaohong, Xia Yabo, et al.Progresses of financial geography and implications. Progress in Geography, 2014, 33(9): 1231-1240.
[本文引用:1]
[40] Heimeriks G, Boschma R. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008. Journal of Economic Geography, 2014, 14(2): 339-364.
This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitive developments within this scientific field. Our analyses show that biotech is subject to a path- and place-dependent process of knowledge production. We observed a high degree of re-occurrences of similar key topics in biotech in consecutive years. Furthermore, slow growth cities in biotech are characterized by topics that are less technologically related to other topics, while high growth cities in biotech contribute to topics that are more related to the entire set of existing topics. Slow growth and stable growth cities in biotech introduced more new topics, while fast growth cities in biotech introduced more promising topics. Slow growth cities also showed low levels of research collaboration, as compared to stable and high growth cities.
DOI:10.1093/jeg/lbs052      [本文引用:1]
[41] Boschma R, Hartog M. Merger and acquisition activity as driver of spatial clustering: The spatial evolution of the Dutch banking industry, 1850-1993. Economic Geography, 2014, 90(3): 247-266.
This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850鈥1993. We found that spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry was not driven by the fact that banks performed better in the Amsterdam region: being located in Amsterdam decreased rather than increased the survival chances of banks. However, banks in Amsterdam were disproportionally active in acquiring other banks outside Amsterdam. Experience in M&As accumulated mainly in the Amsterdam region, which in turn had a positive impact on the survival chances of banks located there. Our findings suggest that M&A activity was a driving force behind the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry between 1850 and 1993.
DOI:10.1111/ecge.12054      [本文引用:1]
[42] Wenting R. Spinoff dynamics and the spatial formation of the fashion design industry, 1858-2005. Journal of Economic Geography, 2008, 8(5): 593-614.
Many firms start as spinoff companies having the advantage of inheriting organizational routines of the parent firm. By constructing the genealogical structure of parent-spinoff relationships, one can analyze the effects of routine replication on firm success. Based on a unique dataset on the global fashion design industry we find that spinoffs outperform other firms and that spinoffs inherit parent success. We supplement this genealogical perspective with an analysis of localization economies and migration flows, which are shown to have an insignificant effect on firm success. We conclude that the local replication of routines through spinoffs caused the clustering of fashion design in a handful of cities around the world.
DOI:10.1093/jeg/lbn030      [本文引用:1]
[6] [潘峰华, 徐晓红, 夏亚博, . 境外金融地理学研究进展及启示. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(9): 1231-1240.]
在过去的30 多年间,随着经济金融化和金融全球化的逐渐扩展和深化,国外金融地理学研究取得了新的进展。2007 年源于美国的金融危机是国外金融地理学研究的重要转折点,金融地理学由此开始进入繁荣发展阶段。本文全面搜集了1980-2013 年5 月发表于13 种国际权威地理学期刊的金融地理文献,共计245 篇。通过对文献的梳理和分析,将国外金融地理学研究的主要议题总结为:金融中心的区位及影响因素、银行的空间分布及区域影响、金融排除、证券市场的空间变化、养老金的区域差异、风险投资的空间集聚及投资空间邻近性、金融化和金融危机等方面,重点阐述这些议题的研究进展,并总结了国外金融地理学研究的特征。在此基础上,从金融市场的快速发展、独特国情、国际资本市场的复杂性等方面展望了中国金融地理学研究面临的机遇和挑战。
DOI:10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.010      [本文引用:1]
[7] Wu Wei, Liu Weidong, Liu Yi.Regional differences of local banking systems in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2007, 62(12): 1235-1243.
[本文引用:1]
[武巍, 刘卫东, 刘毅. 中国地区银行业金融系统的区域差异. 地理学报, 2007, 62(12): 1235-1243.]
随着中国国金融服务业不断深人改革以及对外资金融机构的逐渐开放.金融服务业的空间格局更为复杂。以银行业为例.区域内服务地域范围不同的银行金融机构的组合已经引起人们的重视.这种组合就构成了地区金融系统(地区银行系统)。地区金融系统内的银行金融机构可以划分为包括国有商业银行、政策性银行、全国性股份制商业银行、外资银行等的外来型银行金融机构.以及包括城市商业银行(城市信用社)、农村信用社(农村合作银行)等的本地型银行金融机构。研究表明:地区金融系统存在着萌芽期、发展期以及成熟期三个发展阶段.不同阶段具有明显的特点。地区金融系统受到地区经济发展水平、产业结构、地方政策以及地区金融素养等因素影响。采用定性和定量相结合的方法.利用中国30个省市(自治区)的数据.分析了中国各地区金融系统的区域差异。在各地区金融系统中,外来型银行金融机构表现为:国有银行的分支机构处于相对主导的地位;外资银行集中于重要结点;全国性股份制商业银行区域性集中趋势明显:对于本地型银行金融机构则具有城市商业银行分布不均:农村信用社填充国有银行撤出地区空白,但实际发挥的作用有限等特点。
[43] Yin Laisheng, Feng Bangyan. Review and prospect of financial agglomeration research. Human Geography, 2012, 27(1): 16-21.
With the arrival of "service economy", the service industry is becoming increasingly important in the national economy. Financial is the core of modern economy, the core elements and endogenous variables in economic development. Although many cities are making great efforts to promote financial development, it always seems to appear in the form of agglomeration (eg: financial centers). Financial agglomeration not only has the common characteristics of manufacture agglomeration, but also has uniqueness. The mainly research contents of financial agglomeration include its motivations, modes, types, and effects, the construction of financial center et al. Motivation factors of financial agglomeration can be divided into two aspects of internal and external factors. There are two modes of the formation of financial agglomeration, one is drawing on the path dependence of contingency factors such as history and special events, the other is primarily dependent on the relevant industrial policy of the state, and spatial layout in accordance with the economic development strategy by the government. There have different types of financial agglomeration under different division methods. According to the geographical scope of financial centers, it can be divided into regional-based, national, regional and global type. From the characteristics of spatial layout, it can be divided into the Marshallian new industrial district, the hub-and-spoke, satellite platform, state-anchored district. As the financial agglomeration plays an important role in economic development, how to construct a financial center have become the concerns to many government departments and experts. There are two opposing arguments about the future development of financial services industry: One is that globalization is the synonym of "end of geography", the other is that globalization does not undermine the spatial entity of financial center as a node in the global financial system. Finally, some suggestions are offered for the future research. The first is the research of the functions and industrial layout of China's financial center cities; the second is the sub-sectors and micro-regional research of financial industry.
[本文引用:1]
[尹来盛, 冯邦彦. 金融集聚研究进展与展望. 人文地理, 2012, 27(1): 16-21.]
金融业集聚属于服务业集聚范畴,既与制造业集聚有共性,又有其独特性。金融集聚的研究主要依托于区位理论、集群理论和金融地理学。区位理论是金融集聚的理论基础,集群理论为金融集聚提供了研究范式,金融地理学的发展为金融集聚研究带来新的动向。金融集聚的现有研究内容主要集中于对集聚的动因、类型、效应、模式的探讨,以及金融中心的构建等几个方面。随着全球化、信息化对金融业的发展布局影响越来越大,未来应重点加强对金融分支行业和微观区域方面的研究。
[44] Shen Yuming, Wu Kang, Ren Wangbing. Research progress of the spatial agglomeration on producer services. Geographical Research, 2009, 28(6): 1494-1507.
[本文引用:1]
[8] Li Xiaojian. A theoretical review of financial geography and study of financial geography in China. Economic Geography, 2006, 26(5): 721-725.
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[李小建. 金融地理学理论视角及中国金融地理研究. 经济地理, 2006, 26(5): 721-725.]
基于对国际文献和中国实际的了解和思考,从金融机构的空间结构、空间发展过程以及金融机构与环境的关系等方面分析了金融地理学的主要研究内容。主要理论问题包括地理存在论、金融变化的区域经济影响观点、区域金融系统演化模式、金融地理的路径依赖、金融全球化与地方关系等;在此基础上,从环境对金融地理影响、全球化与区域金融系统、行政格局与金融体系、金融系统与区域发展、金融企业地理5方面提出中国金融地理研究的切入点。
[9] Pan F, Daniel B. Going global? Examining the geography of Chinese firms' overseas listings on international stock exchanges. Geoforum, 2014, 52: 1-11.
In a globalising world, as economies are becoming increasingly integrated the number of firms seeking to connect to global capital markets and list on international stock exchanges is rapidly rising. Up to 2011 there have been more than 1000 Chinese firms listed on overseas stock exchanges. As a dynamic and emerging economy, the connection of Chinese firms to global capital markets and flows has the potential to reshape economic geography at a variety of geographical scales. Despite this, there has been limited academic enquiry attending to these issues and exploring the internationalisation of Chinese firms through overseas listing. Using a comprehensive dataset, this paper addresses this research lacuna and provides a preliminary analysis of the geography of overseas listings. The paper describes how the trend and geography of Chinese firms listing overseas started in the late 1980s but has grown rapidly in the past decade. Hong Kong, New York, Singapore, and London are the major destinations of larger Chinese firms for overseas listing, while emerging destinations such as Germany, South Korea, Australia, and Canada are attracting more firms. We found that firms in different locations and sectors favoured different markets. Generally listing firms tend to originate from eastern China, reflecting the spatial pattern of the Chinese economy. The paper argues that there are two main factors influencing the geography of Chinese firms鈥 overseas listing activity. The first is the role of the state in influencing, and in some cases, directly determining the locational choice of overseas listing for Chinese firms. The second is the effect of proximity preferences in influencing the decision taken by some firms to list in particular overseas markets. The paper closes with a discussion on the impacts of overseas listings domestically in China and globally on international exchanges where firms list.
DOI:10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.12.003      [本文引用:1]
[44] [申玉铭, 吴康, 任旺兵. 国内外生产性服务业空间集聚的研究进展. 地理研究, 2009, 28(6): 1494-1507.]
20世纪90年代以来,作为服务业中重要一支的生产性服务业正成为推动我国大城市经济增长的重要力量和体现城市经济职能的主要方面。本文在对产业集聚和服务业区位等相关理论回顾的基础上,对目前国内外生产性服务业空间集聚的主要研究内容和研究方法进行了详尽梳理。总体来看,围绕着区域和大都市内两个尺度,生产性服务业空间集聚的研究取得了明显进展,但同时尚存在一些不足:①偏重于空间集聚的格局研究,对其演变过程研究相对薄弱;②空间集聚的机理研究稍显不足,缺乏规律的总结;③研究方法上大多将制造业集聚的测度模型移植到生产性服务业,其适用性和针对性尚需进一步探讨。今后应围绕"测度辨识—格局过程—作用机理",运用定性、定量与空间分析综合集成的方法,继续深化和完善生产性服务业集聚的地理学研究。
DOI:10.11821/yj2009060006      [本文引用:1]
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[综合开发研究院(中国.深圳)课题组. 中国金融中心指数(CDI CFCI)报告(第七期). 北京: 中国经济出版社, 2015.]
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Abstract The paper opens with a discussion of the emergence of new ensembles of relations and forces of production. A factual account of the geography of high technology industry in the United States is presented. Some prevalent current approaches to the locational analysis of high technology industry are evaluated. An attempt is then made to show theoretically (a) how new growth centres emerge, on the basis of (b) agglomeration economies rooted in (c) the organisation of industry and local labor market dynamics, in the wider context of (d) macro-regional shifts in the location of new industrial ensembles. Growth centre/periphery relations are examined. -Authors
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No abstract
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[48] Boschma R A, Van der Knaap G A. New high-tech industries and windows of locational opportunity: The role of labour markets and knowledge institutions during the industrial era. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 1999, 81(2): 73-89.
This paper presents a theoretical concept (the so-called"Open Windows of Locational Opportunity" concept, or OWLO concept) which provides an explanation for why it is rather uncertain and unpredictable where new high-technology industries will emerge in space. This is due to three tightly linked features of new high-tech industries. Firstly, new high-tech industries reflect a high rate of discontinuity because they place new demandson their local production environment. Secondly, due to this mismatch, new high-tech industries depend on their creative ability to generate or attract their own favourable production environment. This creative capacity compensates for the lack of specific local stimuli, as associated with their discontinuous nature. Thirdly, the OWLO concept claims that chance events may have a considerable impact on the place where new industries emerge. This is because it remains unpredictable at which place potentially favourable resources of a generic nature set in motion a creative process which brings increasing returns (that is, "localization economies") into the local production environment. As a consequence, many regions are considered to be in a more or less equal position to develop new high-tech industries during their initialstage of growth, despite their different techno-industrial histories. We have further illustrated this OWLO concept by linking it to the problem of whether regional labour markets and knowledge institutions may facilitate the ability of regions to generate new high-tech industries, despite the fact that these require new knowledge and skills. We made an attempt to specify in broad terms the extent to which local supplies of labour and institutionalized knowledge may have influenced the place where so-called new clusters of innovative industries emerged in Great Britain and Belgium during the industrial epoch. We presented some evi-dence that the three key notions of the OWLO concept described above have indeed been features of the spatial emergence of many new clusters in both countries during their initial stage of development.
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[10] Pan Fenghua, Hu Xiaohui, Mei Lixia, et al.The observation of Global Conference on Economic Geography. Acta Geographica Sinica , 2016, 70(12): 2034-2039.
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第四届全球经济地理大会(Global Conference on Economic Geography, GCEG)于2015 年8 月19-23 日在英国牛津大学召开,来自世界各地近700 名经济地理学者参会。中国大陆包括中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所、北京大学、北京师范大学、华东师范大学、浙江大学、河南大学、华南师范大学、东北师范大学、中南财经政法大学、云南大学等机构数十位学者参加本会议。中国科学院地理科学与资源所刘卫东研究员和北京大学贺灿飞教授分别担任大会顾问委员会委员和组委会委员。此外,中国地理学会以及北京大学—林肯土地政策研究中心作为特别赞助方资助了本次会议。
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This paper examines the offshore financial center (OFC) of the Cayman Islands in the Caribbean as part of an attempt, on the one hand, to map emerging geographies associated with rapid and far-reaching changes in the international financial system, and, on the other hand, to further a Marxian understanding of how capital increases its flexibility and averts crisis (not unproblematically) through the financial system. Thus, in this paper, the major industries of the offshore sector in the Caymans are outlined and their development presented. I then examine the Cayman Islands' development and operation as an OFC in two wider contexts: first, changes in the practice of international banking, and second, the regional competition between "entrepreneurial islands" for offshore finance. I argue that the development of new spaces in the global economy--OFCs-- cannot be understood without an understanding of changes in the international financial system (new markets, instruments, risks, and others). Furthermore, the changes in the international financial system cannot be understood except as operating through space and specifically through distinct spaces such as the OFCs. Although the Cayman Islands are a small place, they have strategically positioned themselves at the nexus of the circuits of fast and fungible financial capital and offer a window on the workings of the international financial system.
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Foreign banks in the United States are major sources of investment capital and producers of financial services. Foreign banking is localized in a few metropolises. Six major international banking centers serve as American nodes in the system of global flows of capital and financial services. The asset structure, size, type, and national origins of foreign banks in these centers reveal investment motives. New York is the primary foreign banking complex. The magnitude of its foreign banking segment together with the diversity of bank sizes, nationalities, and types contributes to its distinctiveness. Its traditional role as the focal point of interaction between the securities and the domestic banking industries has been augmented by rapid expansion of foreign banks in the 1980s. In Chicago, foreign banking has grown together with its fast-growing financial markets. Foreign banking in Los Angeles and San Francisco is dominated by Japanese banks, which are mainly engaged in traditional bank lending. They intensified oscillations in the Californian economy by financing the real estate overbuilding of the 1980s. In the Southeast, foreign banking has rapidly increased in Atlanta and Miami. Atlanta's foreign banks are mainly engaged in commercial and industrial lending rather than in production of global financial services. Miami's much larger number of small foreign banks produce services related to flows of trade and investment between the United States, South America, and Europe.
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Steven Klepper’s theory of industry clustering based on organizational reproduction and inheritance through spinoffs challenged the Marshallian view on industry clustering. This article provides an assessment of Klepper’s theoretical and empirical work on industry clustering. We explore how “new” his spinoff theory on industry clustering was, and we investigate the impact of Klepper’s theory on the economic geography community. Klepper’s work has inspired especially recent literature on regional branching that argues that new industries grow out of and recombine capabilities from local related industries. Finally, the article discusses what questions on industry location are still left open or in need of more evidence in the context of Klepper’s theory.
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We analyze the birth of capabilities and resources within organizations and within industries, and their historical antecedents, at the time of market entry. We find a consistent theme: the greater the similarity between pre-entry firm resources and the required resources in an industry, the greater the likelihood that a firm will enter that particular industry, and the greater the likelihood that the firm will survive and prosper. In addition, resource gaps affect the likelihood, speed and mode of entry. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.
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[55] Feldman M, Lendel I. Under the lens: The geography of optical science as an emerging industry. Economic Geography, 2010, 86(2): 147-171.
Optical science is the study of light and the ways in which light interacts with matter. Although its origins coincide with the earliest scientific inquiry, modern optics is an enabling technology that is applied to a variety of intermediate markets elecommunication equipment, medical devices, scientific instruments, semiconductors, imaging and reproduction, defense and security, and retail logistics. One difficulty in studying emerging technology is the limitation of current industrial categories and patent classes. This article examines the geography of optical science inventions using a new methodology that can be applied to study other emerging industries. We rely on companies that self-identify as working on optics on the basis of their voluntary membership in the Optics Society of America. We investigate the inventive activity of these companies from 2004 to 2007 and identify a set of International Patent Classes that defines the emergent technology space in optical science. Using this definition, we then analyze all the organizations that are inventing in optical science. We find that inventive activity is geographically concentrated: patenting takes place in 240 urban areas, although 84 percent of the patents were invented in 30 metropolitan areas and almost 50 percent were attributed to 11 metropolitan areas. The article considers the organizations that are shaping the emerging technology and the consequences for geographic clusters. Our results reveal that the geographic distribution of inventive activity does not reflect the location of self-designated regional optics clusters in the United States but suggests a more nuanced understanding of the emergence of industries. We conclude by considering lessons about the development of clusters in emerging industries.
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[刘志高, 张薇. 演化经济地理学视角下的产业结构演替与分叉研究评述. 经济地理, 2016, 36(12): 218-223.]
产业结构演替是传统的研究话题之一,新古典经济学和"新增长理论"分别探讨了产业结构及其内生技术动力。但影响产业结构演替的要素众多,并随研究区域、行业及产业周期的变化而变化,具有很深的历史根植性。1990年代发展起来的演化经济地理学为更好地理解推动产业结构变化的要素及其作用机制提供了强大的理论和研究方法。但研究转型国家产业结构演替时,需要对起源于欧美的演化经济地理学分析框架进行修正。文章首先梳理了产业结构分析框架及演化视角下的产业结构演替研究,并在评述其发展背景和研究特色的基础上,探讨两者之间的内在联系;最后,结合中国发展特点,讨论了现有的产业结构演替研究在中国实际应用中需要注意的问题。
[57] He Canfei, Ren Yonghuan, Li Yunxiong. The mechanism of cross-boundary product evolution in China: An empirical analysis based on export product of prefecture-level cities. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 2016, 36(11): 1605-1613.
New product promotes the sustainable growth of the local economy. Evolutionary economic geographers believe that the emergence of new products is based on local original products and related industries, saying that the development of new industries demands access to local capability. Local capability is the key source of technological and industrial diversification, which provides potentials for regions to diversify into new technologies and industries. Organizational routines are core concept in an evolutionary approach. Economic evolution can then be understood as the selective transmission of routines among organizational entities. However little attention has yet been paid to the role of spillovers from neighbor regions for industrial diversification. Regions are in an associative network but not absolutely isolated, especially for the neighbor regions. Knowledge spillovers may occur across regions and successful routines may be transferred to neighbor regions by the way of population mobility and spinoff. So this article discusses whether the evolutionary process can cross space and administrative boundaries based on the current evolutionary theories. To answer this question, we analyze the development of new products in Chinese prefecture-level cities during the period 2002-2013 using the HS 4-digit classification data on exports. The results show that the evolution of product can occur across administrative boundaries between neighbor cities, but only when the local has a good foundation of relevant industries. And the decentralization between provinces is a significant barrier for cross-boundary evolution. Besides, taking into account of the different knowledge attributes of products and the regional difference of economic development, there exist significant differences among regions and products in cross-boundary evolutionary mechanisms.
[本文引用:1]
[贺灿飞, 任永欢, 李蕴雄. 产品结构演化的跨界效应研究: 基于中国地级市出口产品的实证分析. 地理科学, 2016, 36(11): 1605-1613.]
使用2002~2013年中国(不包括港澳台地区)地级市出口的四位数产品数据,建立高维固定效应模型探究了新产品的出现与邻近地区之间的关系。回归结果显示产品的演化可以在邻近地区之间跨越行政边界发生,但发生的条件是本地要拥有良好的相关产业基础。同时省间分权作用会阻碍跨边界演化过程。除此之外,跨边界演化机制表现出明显的地区差异与行业差异。
[58] Tanner A N. Regional branching reconsidered: Emergence of the fuel cell industry in European regions. Economic Geography, 2014, 90(4): 403-427
The literature on economic geography suffers from a lack of attention to the emergence of new industries. Recent literature on “regional branching” proposes that new industries emerge in regions where preexisting economic activities are technologically related to the emerging industry. This article provides a more grounded basis for the emerging literature on regional branching by confronting the regional branching thesis with the realities of an emerging industry, namely, the fuel cell industry. The analysis is based on patent data and qualitative interviews conducted in a selection of European NUTS2 (nomenclature of territorial units for statistics) regions. The findings can be summarized as follows. First, the analysis reveals that in the case of the emerging fuel cell industry, regional diversification is dominated by firm diversification, which complements previous studies’ findings that entrepreneurial spin-offs dominate regional diversification. Second, the study corroborates the assumption that the process of regional branching relies on knowledge generated by nonindustrial actors such as universities and research institutes. Third, the findings suggest that care should be taken in ascribing the underlying logic of regional branching to the principle of technological relatedness alone. The article shows how some regional diversification processes occur in regions where preexisting economic activities are not technologically related to the emerging industry, for instance, when user industries apply new technologies to their product portfolio. The importance of further investigating and disentangling different dimensions of relatedness and their impact on regional branching is stressed.
DOI:10.1111/ecge.12055      [本文引用:1]
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[60] Boschma R, Minondo A, Navarro M. The emergence of new industries at the regional level in Spain: A proximity approach based on product relatedness. Economic Geography, 2013, 89(1): 29-51.
Top of page abstract Acknowledgments Regional Diversification Based on Relatedness Data and Methodology The Relationship Between Density and the Entry of New Products in Spanish Regions Econometric Analyses Conclusions References How do regions diversify over time? Inspired by recent studies, we argue that regions diversify into industries that make use of capabilities in which regions are specialized. Since the spread of capabilities occurs through mechanisms that have a strong regional bias, we expect that capabilities that are available at the regional level play a larger role than do capabilities that are available at the country level for the development of new industries. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the emergence of new industries in 50 Spanish regions at the NUTS 3 level in the period 1988-2008. We calculate the capability-distance between new export products and existing export products in Spanish regions and provide econometric evidence that regions tend to diversify into new industries that use similar capabilities as existing industries in these regions. We show that proximity to the regional industrial structure plays a much larger role in the emergence of new industries in regions than does proximity to the national industrial structure. This finding suggests that capabilities at the regional level enable the development of new industries.
DOI:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2012.01170.x      [本文引用:1]
[61] He Canfei, Dong Yao, Zhou Yi. Evolution of export product space in China: Path-dependent or path-breaking? Acta Geographica Sinica, 2016, 71(6): 969-983.
[本文引用:1]
[贺灿飞, 董瑶, 周沂. 中国对外贸易产品空间路径演化. 地理学报, 2016, 71(6): 969-983.]
地区经济发展与其生产结构紧密相联。演化经济地理学认为,地区生产结构的演化受技术关联的影响,是一个路径依赖过程;一些研究也认为产业和区域政策等因素可能创造新路径,实现路径突破。本文沿用Hidalgo等定义的贸易产品空间方法,基于2001-2013年中国31个省区市的产品贸易数据,对中国出口产品空间(Product Space)的演化路径进行探讨。结果发现:中国四大区域—东部、中部、西部和东北地区的出口产品经历了较为明显的结构转型,不同区域的转型方向与路径各异。在2001-2007年间,四大区域的出口产品空间演化受到技术关联的显著影响,体现为路径依赖的过程。在2008-2013年间,东部、中部与东北地区的产品空间演化仍受技术关联的影响,而西部地区则更多受到产业和区域政策的推动,体现了路径突破的演化过程。本文研究启示,虽然中国区域生产结构演化一定程度上受制于现有区域能力、技术和知识积累,但是区域性制度政策创新可以突破原有路径,为区域发展创造新的机会。
DOI:10.11821/dlxb201606006     
[62] Wang Mingfeng, Xi Houxue. The evolutionary paths of new emerging industry in cities: A case study of the Internet of things industry in the Yangtze River Delta region. Geographical Research, 2015, 34(9): 1697-1707.
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[汪明峰, 郗厚雪. 城市新兴技术产业的演化路径比较分析: 以长三角物联网产业为例. 地理研究, 2015, 34(9): 1697-1707.]
1990年代后期以来,经济地理学出现了演化思潮,一些新的概念为分析产业的空间演化提供了有效的理论工具。基于演化经济地理学中的路径依赖理论,以长三角地区的物联网产业为例,探讨了新兴产业兴起和演化过程的地方差异。重点选取无锡、上海、南京和杭州四个城市,采用多案例比较的方法,从产业发展的历史基础、集群状况、政府政策,以及主要动力机制等方面,分析了4个案例的异同点,并突出这些城市在区域经济和制度环境方面的差异。对产业演化机制的讨论还发现,技术基础、政策推动和偶然性事件是新兴技术产业初始发展阶段的主要动因。
DOI:10.11821/d1yj201509008     
[63] Miao Changhong. Three approaches in contemporary economic geographies. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 2007, 27(5): 617-623.
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[苗长虹. 欧美经济地理学的三个发展方向. 地理科学, 2007, 27(5): 617-623.]
经济地理学是在与经济学的交融中创新、发展的。基于经济学发展中的三个重要流派:新古典主义、制度主义和演化主义,经济地理学在新世纪将进入前所未有的纷争时代——新古典经济地理学、制度主义经济地理学和演化经济地理学三足鼎立的"三国时代"。在对经济学领域的这三大流派基本特征分析的基础上,探讨了欧美经济地理学领域这三个发展方向各自的理论出发点及其异同,进而分析了其竞争、合作和创新的基本途径以及对中国经济地理学发展的借鉴意义。
[64] Lu lachang, Wei Yehua. Institutional turn, institutional thickness of new economic geography and regional development. Economic Geography, 2005, 25(4): 437-441.
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[吕拉昌, 魏也华. 新经济地理学中的制度转向与区域发展. 经济地理, 2005, 25(4): 437-441.]
近年来,伴随着资本主义社会经济转型和全球化,资本主义进入了制度重建的新阶段,社会科学日益重视"制度"因素的作用.经济地理学强调制度、文化对区域发展的影响,提出了经济地理学的"制度转向".文章深入分析西方学者提出的制度转向、制度厚度概念及与区域发展关系的基础上,进行理论评析,并简要探讨对中国区域发展的启示.
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[66] Zhang Yongkai, Xu Wei. Analysis of the industry spatial evolution mechanism and its determinants from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography: A case study of China's automobile industry. World Regional Studies, 2014, 23(2): 1-13.
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[张永凯, 徐伟. 演化经济地理学视角下的产业空间演化及其影响因素分析. 世界地理研究, 2014, 23(2): 1-13.]
本文以演化经济地理学理论作为分析框架,从演化视角探讨产业空间的演化机制及其影响因素,并以中国汽车工业为例进行实证分析。研究结果发现,改革开放前,政府的汽车产业政策对中国汽车工业空间布局具有决定性的影响;改革开放后,虽然中国汽车工业空间布局在不同阶段的影响因素有所差别,但总体上讲,制度因素、外商投资对中国汽车工业空间布局和演化产生显著性影响。未来,随着市场经济完善和汽车工业技术创新能力提升,市场需求和技术创新影响因素将进一步凸显。
[67] Liu Xin, He Canfei. Relatedness and urban industrial growth. Geographical Research, 2016, 35(4): 717-730.
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[刘鑫, 贺灿飞. 技术关联与城市产业增长研究. 地理研究, 2016, 35(4): 717-730.]
动态外部性对于城市产业增长具有显著影响,考察技术关联与城市产业增长之间的关系,并结合产业特征和区域特征构建产业—空间新增长模型,探讨技术关联对城市产业增长的影响机制。采用1998-2008年中国工业企业数据库的数据,研究发现产业特征和区域特征与技术关联存在相互作用,技术密集型产业的技术关联显著促进产业增长,此外东部地区技术关联越高,产业增长越迅速。研究表明,技术关联对城市产业增长的影响具有显著的促进作用,且在不同产业内部和不同区域间存在显著差异。
DOI:10.11821/dlyj201604010     
[68] Zucker L, Darby M, Armstrong J. Geographically localized knowledge: Spillovers or markets? Economic Inquiry, 1998, 36(1): 65-86.
Using detailed data on California biotechnology, we find that the positive impact of research universities on nearby firms relates to identifiable market exchange between particular university star scientists and firms and not to generalized knowledge spillovers. Poisson and two-stage Heckman regressions indicate the number of star-firm collaborations powerfully predicts success: for an average firm, five articles coauthored by academic stars and the firm's scientists imply about five more products in development, 3.5 more products on the market, and 860 more employees. Stars collaborating with or employed by firms, or who patent, have significantly higher citation rates than pure academic stars.
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[69] MacKinnon D, Cumbers A, Pike A. Evolution in economic geography: Institutions, political economy, and adaptation. Economic Geography, 2009, 85(2): 129-150.
Economic geography has, over the past decade or so, drawn upon ideas from evolutionary economics in trying to understand processes of regional growth and change. Recently, some researchers have sought to delimit and develop an “evolutionary economic geography” (EEG), aiming to create a more systematic theoretical framework for research. This article provides a sympathetic critique and elaboration of this emergent EEG but takes issue with some aspects of its characterization in recent programmatic statements. While acknowledging that EEG is an evolving and pluralist project, we are concerned that the reliance on certain theoretical frameworks that are imported from evolutionary economics and complexity science threatens to isolate it from other approaches in economic geography, limiting the opportunities for cross-fertilization. In response, the article seeks to develop a social and pluralist conception of institutions and social agency in EEG, drawing upon the writings of leading institutional economists, and to link evolutionary concepts to political economy approaches, arguing that the evolution of the economic landscape must be related to processes of capital accumulation and uneven development. As such, we favor the use of evolutionary and institutional concepts within a geographical political economy approach, rather than the construction of some kind of theoretically separate EEG—evolution in economic geography, not an evolutionary economic geography.
DOI:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01017.x      [本文引用:1]
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