：The rocky desertification in the karst area is becoming the third largest ecological problem in western China following desertification, as well as soil and water loss. In recent years, rocky desertification in the karst trough valley is increasing seriously, and puts more and more pressure on the environment. Therefore, by GIS spatial analysis functions and geodetector models, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of rocky desertification in different gradients and its driving factors based on rock desertification, lithology, slope, elevation, rainfall, land use, population density and the total output value of primary industry in the valley. The results are as follows: (1) The total rocky desertification area in the karst trough area is 21, 323.7 km 2, accounting for 8.3% of the land area in the study area; of which the light, moderate and severe rocky desertification areas are 11, 894.8 km 2, 8615.8 km 2 and 813.1 km 2, respectively, accounting for 55.8%, 40.4% and 3.8% of the desertified area. (2) From the spatial distribution, rocky desertification mainly occurs in the continuous limestone, and the light, moderate and severe rocky desertification areas respectively account for 22.1%, 22.4% and 1.9% of the corresponding rocky desertification types in the trough area; Rocky desertification in the trough area mainly occurs in the gradient range of 15° to 25°, and the light, moderate, and severe rocky desertification areas account for 27.1%, 18.2% and 2.3% of the corresponding rocky desertification in the trough area, respectively; From the elevation, it is mainly distributed in the range of 400-800 m, and the areas of rocky desertification with light, moderate, and severe erosion grades account for 24.9%, 18.4% and 0.2% of the corresponding rocky desertification area in the trough area, respectively; From the land use type, it mainly occurs in upland mountains; From the population density, it concentrates in areas with 100-200 persons/km 2; From the total output value of primary industry, it concentrates in areas with 2.5-50 billion. (3) The factor detectors of geographical detectors revealed that the lithology, land use, and slope are the main driving factors for the formation of rocky desertification in the trough region. Interactive detectors further revealed that the lithology and land use types (q = 0.85) together with slopes and land use types (q = 0.75) drive the formation of rocky desertification in the trough area.