地理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 78 ›› Issue (11): 2850-2863.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202311013

• 生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于公民科学数据的中国鸟类城市化响应及适应性

吴佳雨1(), 杨梦夏1, 周侃2,3()   

  1. 1.浙江大学园林研究所,杭州 310058
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2022-09-04 修回日期:2023-11-02 出版日期:2023-11-25 发布日期:2023-11-29
  • 通讯作者: 周侃(1986-), 男, 云南丽江人, 博士, 副研究员, 硕士生导师, 主要研究方向为资源环境承载力与空间治理。E-mail: zhoukan@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:吴佳雨(1989-), 男, 内蒙古乌海人, 博士, 副教授, 博士生导师, 主要研究方向为城市绿色空间治理。E-mail: wujiayula@zju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0406);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23020101)

Urbanization responses and adaptation of birds in China based on citizen science data

WU Jiayu1(), YANG Mengxia1, ZHOU Kan2,3()   

  1. 1. Institute of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2022-09-04 Revised:2023-11-02 Published:2023-11-25 Online:2023-11-29
  • Supported by:
    The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK0406);Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23020101)

摘要:

全球鸟类多样性正面临巨大威胁。现有关于鸟类特征与其城市化响应的研究多聚焦于地方或区域尺度,采用分类变量对鸟类城市耐受力进行分级,且较少考虑物种间进化关系,致使鸟类特征与其对城市化响应的关联机制存在诸多争议。因此,本文综合了2012—2020年中国范围内952036个鸟类公民科学观测数据和多种连续的城市化水平测度方法(城市与建成区比例、人口密度和夜间灯光强度),基于系统发育的视角,从国家、省域和城市尺度探究中国鸟类的城市化响应模式及空间适应性。结果表明:具有较多的窝卵数和食性泛化的鸟类是最能适应城市化的物种。非系统发育和系统发育两种视角度量得出的鸟类城市化响应模式不同,表明物种间进化关系的确掩盖了鸟类在城市适应性上的表现:同一进化枝系上在建筑崖壁上筑巢的鸟类更易适应城市建成环境。此外,不同纬度背景下影响鸟类城市适应性的决定性因素有所不同:高位觅食在高纬度城市环境中发挥重要作用,食虫鸟在中纬度区表现出高城市耐受力,而迁徙鸟是低纬度区预测鸟类高城市适应性的重要特征。

关键词: 鸟类特征, 城市化响应, 公民科学数据, 系统发育分析, 中国

Abstract:

Bird diversity is facing a considerable threat. The existing studies primarily focus on local or regional scales by relying on categorical variables to classify birds' urban tolerance. However, they tend to neglect the evolutionary relationship between species, leading to inconsistent and sometimes contradictory conclusions regarding the response of bird traits to urbanization. Therefore, our study attempts to supplement the previous literature by using the above deficiencies as bases. We integrate 952,036 citizen science observations of birds in China from 2012 to 2020, along with various continuous measures of urbanization, such as the proportion of built-up land, population density, and night-light intensity. From a phylogenetic perspective, we explore the urbanization response and tolerance of Chinese birds on national, regional, and urban scales. Our findings reveal that birds with large clutch sizes and generalist diets are the most adaptable in the urban environment. Moreover, phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic analyses present inconsistencies, indicating that the evolutionary relationship between species conceals the expression of several traits in urban tolerance. Birds that nest on architectural cliffs show high urban tolerance within clades. In addition, the decisive factors influencing birds' tolerance to urbanization vary across different latitudes. High-foraging birds perform well in high-latitude urban environments, whereas insectivorous birds exhibit high urban tolerance in mid-latitude areas. Migratory birds show strong adaptation to urban environments at low latitudes. The above results confirm the importance of considering species evolution and diverse continuous urban measurement in studying the relationship between various birds and urbanization. This approach helps us adopt differentiated protection strategies for birds in the context of rapid urbanization. Several measures can be implemented to mitigate the adverse impact of rapid urbanization on birds and promote harmonious urban design. They include protecting the existing trees and buildings that serve as nesting sites for birds, increasing the presence of shrubs to provide suitable habitats for ground-dwelling bird species, and implementing strategies to control predation risks for ground nests. These efforts contribute to optimizing urban spaces and creating a favorable environment for bird populations.

Key words: bird traits, urbanization responses, citizen science data, phylogenetic analysis, China