地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (12): 2937-2953.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202212001

• 城镇化与行政区划 •    下一篇

中国县域城镇化格局演化与优化路径

刘彦随1(), 杨忍2(), 林元城2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2022-05-28 修回日期:2022-11-24 出版日期:2022-12-25 发布日期:2022-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 杨忍(1984-), 男, 贵州毕节人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为乡村地理、城乡发展与土地利用。E-mail: yangren0514@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘彦随(1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005331M), 研究方向为农业与乡村地理学、城乡发展与人地系统科学。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41931293);国家自然科学基金项目(42171193)

Pattern evolution and optimal paths of county urbanization in China

LIU Yansui1(), YANG Ren2(), LIN Yuancheng2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2022-05-28 Revised:2022-11-24 Published:2022-12-25 Online:2022-12-29
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42171193)

摘要:

县域城镇化的有序发展和优化布局,对于推进城乡要素平等交换、产业结构优化调整、资源与市场优化配置、促进城乡融合发展与乡村振兴具有重要战略意义。研究表明:① 2000—2020年中国县域城镇化快速发展且区域差异显著,东部沿海地区、中部城郊地区和北方边境地区的县域城镇化率相对较高,而西南地区、中部农区、西藏及新疆大部分地区的县域城镇化率偏低;2020年沿“胡焕庸线”东侧的东北地区、冀北及晋陕豫地区、川东及云贵地区成为县域城镇化率高值区,珠三角地区、长三角地区、京津冀地区、成渝地区、长江中下游地区、内蒙古边境地区,以及江浙闽东南沿海一带城镇化率超过50%的县域达716个,占比38.3%。② 县域城镇化是人口、经济、社会、文化等要素综合作用的结果,经济发展水平、自然环境条件、基础设施建设、地理区位条件、公共资源供给、专业创业集群与宏观政策等影响县域城镇化的方向、范围和深度。预测到2035年中国城镇化率为76.04%,县域城镇化率为64.38%。未来要重视强化县域人口、经济、社会和空间组织结构的调整优化。③ 县域城镇化发展可分为大城市周边县域要素集聚型城镇化、专业功能县域产业集聚带动型城镇化、农产品主产区县域农业现代化引领型城镇化、重点生态功能区县域生态保育型城镇化、人口流失县域异地转移集中型城镇化等5种类型。④ 县域城镇化以县城和重点镇作为要素集聚的重要空间载体,形成居业协同与产城融合的多级体系。通过构建产业全价值链、主导产业关联集群、公共服务融合配置体系等创新路径,将推动城乡要素平等交换与公共资源均衡配置、城乡产业融合与等值化发展,促进城乡融合网络化、城乡治理体系化与资源利用集约化,为优化县域人地关系和城镇化空间体系提供持久动力。

关键词: 县域城镇化, 城镇化格局, 优化路径, 乡村地域系统, 乡村振兴, 中国

Abstract:

The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

Key words: county urbanization, urbanization pattern, optimal paths, rural regional system, rural revitalization, China