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1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
3. 福建师范大学地理科学学院,福州 350007

Organization network of Chinese container transportation from the perspective of enterprises
YE Shilin1,2,, CAO Youhui1,, WANG Jiawei3, WU Wei1
1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Abstract

Containerization, which is an important technical innovation in global freight system, has a profound and lasting impact on global trade, regional development, and freight spatial organization. At present, container transportation has become an important carrier of global production factors and commodity flows. Thus, research on the organization network of container transportation has attracted considerable attention from researchers. Literature relevant to this area also continues to grow. In this study, we selected 112 typical container shipping lines and freight forwarders, which are the main organizers of the inter-regional flows of container cargo around the world in the context of market economy. A total of 119 cities, where these shipping lines and freight forwarders are located, are taken as study objects. The hierarchical structure, spatial pattern, network connection, and complexity features of China's container transportation organization network are analyzed based on the theory and research method concerning urban network and complex network. Our study revealed that: (1) Gaps exist in the organizational ability of container transportation in each node-city in China's organization network for container transportation. This network can be divided into four types, namely, national hub city, regional hub city, sub-regional hub city, and local hub city. This network is characterised by a typical pyramidal hierarchical structure. (2) The spatial distribution of the organizational ability of container transportation in China is significantly imbalanced. Significant zonal differences and agglomeration can be observed in the Bohai Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, the south-eastern coastal areas, and the Pearl River Delta. In terms of spatial distribution, the "6+7" spatial structure system, which is composed of six core areas and seven agglomeration areas of the organizational ability, presents the current structure of organization network of container transportation. (3) The linkages between the national hub cities and the regional hub cities are close and extensive, which constitutes the basic framework of linkages network and the main direction of linkages among node-cities. The density of the network linkages in the eastern region is significantly higher than that of the central and western regions. By contrast, network linkages generally tend to expand from the eastern coast area to the central and western regions and from the national hub cities to the local hub cities. (4) The results of complex network analysis show that China's container transportation organization network has strong spatial concentration, connectivity, and spatial organization efficiency. Furthermore, we found that a significant correlation exists between the complexity of the network structure and the container transportation organizational ability of a node city.

Keyword: enterprise network; container transportation; organization network; spatial structure; complex network; China;
1 引言

20世纪50年代中期以后,集装箱运输从陆上推至海上,成为世界货运体系的一场重要技术革新,极大地提高了长距离货物运输的灵活性和安全性,使全球物流成本持续降低[1]。进入21世纪,伴随着全球生产网络和新国际劳动分工的深入发展,生产要素和商品在全球范围内广泛流动,推动了以集装箱运输为代表的现代物流的快速发展,使其成为资源要素全球配置的重要载体,对全球贸易、区域发展、货运空间组织等产生深远影响。以此为依托,集装箱运输组织网络受到了国内外学者的持续关注,已成为交通地理学研究的重要课题。

2 研究方法与数据来源
2.1 研究方法

2.1.1 网络联系测度方法 航运公司、货代、船代等物流企业是市场经济条件下集装箱货物全球跨区域流动的主要组织者。作为典型的多区位网络型组织,出于快速响应市场需求、提高空间网络服务效率、增强企业竞争力等考虑,物流企业大多倾向于在目标市场所能覆盖的城市设立不同等级的分支机构,负责承接和组织集装箱物流业务,形成遍布全国乃至全球众多大中小城市的企业空间网络[16]。同时,通过企业间紧密的垂直性和水平性功能联系将众多节点城市紧密联系在一起,共同推动物质、资本、信息、技术等要素的融合与快速流动,从而实现在区域、国家、全球不同空间尺度上集装箱流的组织与协调。因此,从微观企业视角出发,集装箱运输组织网络可理解为众多物流企业空间网络及其内部功能联系的集合。

$r ij = ∑ a m r ija , r ija = v ia × v ja$ （1）

$R i = ∑ j = 1 n r ij , i ≠ j$ （2）

$CO I i = R i ∑ i = 1 n R i n , i = 1 , 2 , … , n$ （3）

2.1.2 网络复杂性测度方法 复杂网络（Complex Network）是以复杂系统的实体及实体间的相互作用或联系构建网络,并利用物理学方法分析网络结构及其动力学特征,为网络结构复杂性研究提供了新的途径,近年来被广泛应用于交通运输网络和城市经济网络研究,取得了丰富成果[21-22]。对于集装箱运输组织网络而言,最为重要也最为直接地反映网络结构复杂性特征的指标有度中心性、平均路径长度和聚类系数。本文将借助网络分析工具UCINET计算相关指标。

（1）度（Degree, D),用以测度网络中与城市i直接相连的其他城市的个数,反映该城市处于网络中心位置的程度。度值越大,城市中心性越高,拥有的网络资源也越多。

（2）平均路径长度（Average Path Length, L）,用以测度网络中任意两城市间最短路径边数（拓扑最短距离）的平均值,反映网络的整体性质。计算公式为：

$L = 1 1 2 n ( n - 1 ) ∑ d ij$ （4）

（3）聚类系数（Clustering Coefficient, C）,用以测度网络的集团化程度,反映了网络中一个城市的邻接城市之间相互联系的紧密程度,是一种关于网络连接局部属性的指标。城市i的聚类系数 $C i$ 等于所有与城市i相连的城市之间实际存在的边数与理论最大边数的比值,计算公式为：

$C i = 2 E i k i k i - 1$ （5）

$C = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n C i$ （6）

2.2 数据来源

 Figure Option 图1 中国集装箱运输组织网络节点城市分布 Fig. 1 Distribution of node-cities in Chinese container transportation organization network

3 中国集装箱运输组织网络分析
3.1 网络的等级结构特征

 Figure Option 图2 中国集装箱运输组织网络组织系数分布 Fig. 2 Distribution of COI in Chinese container transportation organization network

3.2 网络组织能力的空间分异特征

 Figure Option 图3 中国集装箱运输组织能力空间分异 Fig. 3 Spatial differentiation of the organizational ability of container transportation in China

3.3 网络联系的空间结构特征

 Figure Option 图4 中国集装箱运输组织网络空间联系结构(前10%) Fig. 4 Linkages of Chinese container transportation organization network (Top 10%)

3.4 网络结构的复杂性特征

4 结论与讨论
4.1 结论

4.2 讨论

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Reference