Comparison of spatial structure and organization mode of inter-city networks from the perspective of railway and air passenger flow
WANG Jiaoe1,2,, JING Yue1,2
1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371143;
Funded by the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS;
As traffic flow reflects the socio-economic relations between cities, it is widely applied as a key factor in studies on city networks. Based on the inter-city railway and air passenger flow in 2010, this article made a comparison of the spatial structure and passenger flow organization of inter-city networks from the perspective of railway and air passenger flow, in terms of node, linkage, and community. The results are as follows: (1) Both city networks based on railway and air passenger flow present a hierarchical structure with Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou being the top three, while the nodes in the lower classes of two networks are different. (2) The spatial structure of linkages between cities based on railway passenger flow displays strong neighborhood effect. In contrast, the cities' own characteristics play a dominant role in the organization of air passenger flow. (3) Most of the dominant railway passenger flow is directed to the capital city in each province, forming several disperse regional systems separated by the provincial boundaries. In terms of air passenger flow, the regional systems are integrated by vertical linkages between them. (4) Although the community structure is not obvious from the perspective of air passenger flow, there are seven communities of significant geographical characteristics being detected in the railway network. The main differences between two networks are attributed to the management systems and technical characteristics of the modes of transportation.
The spatial coupling relationship between the community structure of railway network and the area under the jurisdiction of regional railway administrations in China
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This article contributes to the converging literatures on global production networks and new regionalism, which show that these two entities and their respective geographic scales are complexly interdependent. It explores two key conceptual differences between the leading world city network studies of Alderson and Beckfield and the work of the Global and World City (GaWC) Research Network. The first is the sectoral differentiation of the data, in which the former focuses on multinational corporations in all industrial sectors and the latter specifically targets only advanced producer services. The second involves methodological differences that lead to dissimilar network structures. Alderson and Beckfield made only a basic hierarchical differentiation of the firms, while the GaWC study used a more elaborate classification method. Combining these approaches, we explore firms’ global and regional interdependencies (their centrality within their network and its structure). Using a single data set of the top 100 global multinationals (2005) and their ownership linkages with thousands of subsidiaries in 2,259 unique cities worldwide. The findings not only reveal the nodal centralities and linkage structures within the “all industrial sector” network and the “producer service sector” network but also show a strong correlation between these two networks, specifically toward the apex of the economic systems, and evidence of the coexistence of hierarchical and heterarchical city network structures.
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‘Digital’ telecommunication flows and ‘physical’ corporeal flows provide researchers with comprehensive indicators of the economic interactions between cities. However, previous research drawing on telecommunication-based measures of inter-urban connectivity has been hampered by inadequate conceptualizations and data. This paper draws on this observation to devise a new approach for measuring inter-urban connectivity based on a city’s insertion in Internet backbone networks. The straightforward example of air transport flows is thereby used to outline this approach. To investigate telecommunication and air passenger flows, use is made of European statistics on Internet eXchange Points and the MIDT airline database respectively. The approach is illustrated through a systematic comparison of the position of European cities in both types of networks. It is found that European cities assume largely similar hierarchical levels in terms of digital and physical information flows, albeit that the digital connectivity of centrally located European cities is often somewhat higher than that of peripheral cities with a similar levels of physical connectivity.
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<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">This paper examines international urban systems from the standpoint of international air traffic flows and analyzes the patterns of international air passenger and cargo flows within and among the Asian, European and American regions. After evaluating the international air network structures in 1982 and in 1998, the degree of ‘hub-ness’ for prospective hub cities from 1982 to 1998 is clarified by a basic gravity model composed of GDP, population and distance introducing city-dummy variables. The results reveal that Tokyo, Hong Kong and Singapore in Asia, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam in Europe and New York and Miami in the US are strengthening their positions as international hubs.</p>
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This is an empirical study that analyses the geography of 33 global media firms through their locations in 284 cities across the world. The analyses are set within the world cities literature and a methodology is used that searches out city networks from data on firms to define ‘global media cities’. Resulting definitions of network connectivities allow comparisons to be made with more familiar world city network results on global service centres. The relative importance of media industries in European cities is highlighted. The main analysis uses a principal components model to discover global media fields centred upon specific articulator cities, notably New York, Los Angeles, Munich, Berlin, London and Paris. It is concluded that there is a geographical logic to the growth of large media companies.
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ABSTRACT The world's great cities are important nodes in the world economy. Major theorists (Friedman, Sassen, Castells) conceptualize global cities as the command and control centers for contemporary global capitalism. The authors' research offers a view of the global system based on a careful examination of the relations and connections between world cities and how those patterns change over time. Formal network analysis allows the authors to interpret data on flows of airline passengers between the world's great cities for six time points between 1977 and 1997, focusing on the changes in network characteristics (especially centrality hierarchies and clique membership) for the entire global city system. Although New York, Paris, London, Tokyo, and a few other major European and North American metropolises dominate this urban hierarchy throughout the two decades, the network roles and positions of other places shift considerably. The article concludes that research on world city networks once again demonstrates that global urbanization patterns are characterized by the uneven development dynamic anticipated by world-system analysis.
The rail transportation has become an important conveyance carrying passengers and cargos. Railway network which is comprised of stations and railways influences the hierarchical structure and distribution pattern of the national urban system. This paper screens out the study objects including 186 prefectural-level cities having starting trains by timetable, and analyzes the hierarchical structure and distribution pattern of the urban system based on the data of starting trains. This paper demonstrates that the number of railway trains at starting station is positively correlated with the hierarchy of urban system. On this basis, it uses the methods of charts discriminance and the clustering analysis to classify all the 186 cities into four hierarchies. There are 3 national central cities, 8 regional central cities, 30 sub-regional central cities and 145 local central cities. From a unique perspective of railway network, the article reveals the following characteristics of the hierarchical structure and distribution pattern of Chinese urban system. (1) The urban hierarchy system presents a typical pyramidal structure, which means the higher the hierarchy of the cities is in the system, the smaller the number of the cities is. (2) The administrative, topographical and economic factors affect the railway network markedly, consequently affect the urban hierarchy system greatly. (3) The distribution of cities in eastern China is different from that in western China, which means the higher-hierarchy cities are mainly distributed in the east, and the railways of the west cities are mostly in east-west direction. (4) High-hierarchy cities are evenly distributed in eastern China, which constitutes the fundamental framework of Chinese urban railway network and coincides with the "T"-shaped development strategy of the national land. (5) Six pairs of dual-core structure of urban patterns have been formed among high-hierarchy central cities due to the close connection of railway network.