地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (6): 1033-1048.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806004

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市空地:城市化热潮的冷思考

宋小青1,2(),麻战洪3,赵国松4,吴志峰5()   

  1. 1. 中国地质大学(武汉)公共管理学院,武汉 430074
    2. 国土资源部城市土地资源监测与仿真重点实验室,深圳 518034
    3. 湖南省国土资源规划院 国土资源评价与利用湖南省重点实验室,长沙 410007
    4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    5. 广州大学地理科学学院,广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-10 出版日期:2018-06-10 发布日期:2018-06-04
  • 基金资助:
    国土资源部城市土地资源监测与仿真重点实验室开放基金(KF-2016-02-038);国家自然科学基金项目(41401191, 41671430);广东省自然科学基金项目(2015A030313504);广东省教育厅青年创新人才项目(2014KQNCX109)

Urban vacant land: Rethinking the mushrooming urbanization

SONG Xiaoqing1,2(),MA Zhanhong3,ZHAO Guosong4,WU Zhifeng5()   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Urban Land Resources Monitoring and Simulation, Ministry of Land and Resources, Shenzhen 518034, Guangdong, China
    3. Hunan Key Laboratory of Land Resources Evaluation and Utilization, Changsha 410007, China
    4. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    5. School of Geographical Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2017-10-10 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-04
  • Supported by:
    The Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Urban Land Resources Monitoring and Simulation, Ministry of Land and Resources, No.KF-2016-02-038;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41401191, No.41671430;Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, No.2015A030313504;YoungInnovation Talent Program in Guangdong, No.2014KQNCX109

摘要:

城市空地早已“隐藏”在增长与收缩这一对立而又统一的城市化进程中。然而,学术界对其研究尤为不足,国内研究更为滞后。通过文献溯源分析建立城市空地概念,在地块、样带、地区和国家尺度比较分析城市空地的类型、成因及价值,对当今世界城市化热潮做出冷思考。结果表明:① 城市空地在土地覆被、土地用途、土地权属3个维度发生类型分化;② 城市空地格局特征在地块、样带、地区和国家尺度分异明显;③ 城市空地直接成因包括地块分割过于破碎、地块形状不规则、居住人口减少及“去工业化”、土地投机、投资不足、环境问题;④ 城市空地已沦为城市社会、经济和生态空间的“灰色”区域,是增强城市可持续性的潜在资源。此外,有必要遵循“类型划分—格局与过程研究—成因解析—转换机制—影响及价值评估—利用监管”的逻辑框架,从“社会—体制—经济—生态”互动视角,通过不同城市化阶段或地区比较,在微观(地块)、中观(城市样带/地区)、宏观(国家)多尺度开展城市空地研究,以服务于城市更新和土地供给侧结构性改革。

关键词: 城市空地, 城市化, 收缩城市, 土地利用, 转型

Abstract:

Urban vacant land has been concealed for a long time in the contradictory but unified processes of urban growth and shrinkage. The study on urban vacant land, however, is currently a rather rudimentary and subjective issue. This paper firstly presents the connotation of urban vacant land based on bibliometric analysis. Then, typology, proximate causes and values of urban vacant land are analyzed at parcel, transect, city and national levels. Results show that the study in China lags about half a century compared with North America and Europe. Moreover, geographers has seldom paid attention to this issue. Urban vacant land could be proximately categorized by land cover, land usage and land ownership. It is widespread with a large amount in cities. For example, the probabilities of urban vacant land in the cases of Guangzhou and New York are 8.46%-8.88% and 3.17%-5.08%, respectively. In addition, the average proportion of urban vacant housing land take up 11.48% in the 65 cities in the USA. Generally, urban vacant land shows fragmentation and odd shape. Significant spatial differences exist at parcel, transect, city and national levels. Proximate causes, such as land division, odd shape, demographic decline, de-industrialization, land speculation, disinvestment, and environment issues could result in urban vacant land, which has become the Grey Island in urban social, economic and ecological spaces. However, it could be considered as the potential resources for enhancing urban sustainability. To promote urban renewal and land supply-side structural reform, urban vacant land research framework is finally discussed. Specifically, the logical research themes on urban vacant land consist of unified typology, dynamic process and pattern, underlying driving forces, transformation mechanisms among different types, impacts and multifunction assessment, and sustainable use control. Focus should be given to research on social, institutional, economic and ecological interaction, comparative study in different urbanization processes and regions, as well as multi-scale study.

Key words: urban vacant land, urbanization, shrinking cities, land use, transition