地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (4): 395-406.doi: 10.11821/xb200004002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

拉萨城市用地变化分析

张镱锂, 李秀彬, 傅小锋, 谢高地, 郑度   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-28 修回日期:2000-04-25 出版日期:2000-07-15 发布日期:2000-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(G1998040800);中国科学院特别支持项目(KZ951-A1-204;KZ95T-06);中科院地理科学与

Urban Land Use Change in Lhasa

ZHANG Yi li, LI Xiu bin, FU Xiao feng, XIE Gao di, ZHENG Du   

  1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2000-03-28 Revised:2000-04-25 Online:2000-07-15 Published:2000-07-15
  • Supported by:
    The National key Research Development Plan,No.G1998040800;CAS’s Key Project for Basic Research on Tibetan Plateau,No.KZ951-A1-204,KZ95T-06;The Key Project of Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources of CAS for Basic Research on Geographical Sciences

摘要: 根据1999年8~9月实地调查和以往文献资料、4期航片和地形图等大量信息,运用遥感信息解译和GIS软件分析及GPS定位核查,准确地展现了过去50年中拉萨城市用地变化进程,重点分析了城市用地变化产生的生态与环境效应和问题。主要结论如下:1拉萨城区拓展迅速,从1951年始到1999年,城区扩大了10.31倍,城市建设面积扩大了近19倍。城区发展分为:城市扩建初期(1952~1965年)、高速发展时期(1966~1989年)和完善期(1990~1999年)。2确定了拉萨1951年、1965年、1970年、1986年和1989年及1999年城区空间结构、范围、面积;3拉萨市城关区人均耕地急剧减少,1999年初人均耕地0.049hm2,仅为1964年的77.7%.

关键词: 拉萨, 城市用地变化, 环境问题, 拉鲁湿地

Abstract: The urban development of Lhasa were studied mainly by analyzing the literatures, interpreting the aerial photograph (1970, 1985, 1986 and 1991), using contour maps (1965 and 1987), and overlaying them with GIS, investigating the spatial variation with GPS, conducting ecological and vegetation surveys. According to a complete field survey and visitation from the August to the October of 1999, the land use change in Lhasa in the past 50 years were listed as follows: 1. From 1951 to 1999, the Lhasa urban area expanded by 10.31 times and construction area by approximately 19 times. The spatial variation include: (a) In 1951, the city region of Lhasa was the region compassed by the Lhasa Circular Road, with an area of 3 3 km2, including the Potala Palace and true “Lhasa”, except for Norbu Ling. The shopping centers, palaces and temples had an area of 111 66 hm2. The housing area was only 22 hm2, and gardens and grasslands totaled 1700 hm2, and the fallow lands making up more than 45% of the total urban area. (b) The city had expanded by average 25 11 hm2 per year from 1952 to 1965. After 1959, the construction of roads in the center of the city and the urban expansion made this ancient city new. The urban area reached 6 82 km2. (c) From 1966 to 1989, the area of the urban region expanded by 96 88 hm2. From 1966 to 1970, the new urban area was concentrated in the western and eastern of Lhasa with a new area of 5 05 hm2 and 11 87 hm2 added to the original area, 3 59 times of that in 1951 and with an average rate of 101 09 hm2. The hydroelectric station, asphalt roads and some public facilities were built up in succession. From 1971 to 1986, Lhasa got a fast development, especially after 1980, an area of 62 000 m2 for housing was constructed around the Bakuo Street in which 43 000 m2 were increased. In the northern and western of Lhasa, new constructions were emerged. The urban area reached 26 89 km2, 8 14 times of that in 1951, with an average rate of 93 88 hm2 per year. From 1987 to 1989, the urban construction occupied 46 74 hm2 of farmlands, 39 61 hm2 of high quality grasslands and 180 83 hm2 not used land with vegetation, with an average rate of 10 6 hm2. (d) From 1990 to 1999, the constructions of Lhasa were concentrated in the center area and vicinity suburb with an area of 399 hm2 and an average rate of 39 9 hm2. From 1951 to the end of 1999, the construction of Lhasa occupied almost 32 94 km2, with an average rate of 68 63 hm2 per year. 2. Restricted by the geographical situation, the Lhasa City urban area was developed to the western along the Qinghai-Tibetan Road at the beginning, then expanded toward both sides of it, and then toward the north later. 3. The cultivated lands per capita in Chengguan District of Lhasa decrease sharply with 0 049 hm2 in the early 1999, accounting for 77 7% of that in 1964. For a long period, there has no centralized management of land use for Tibetan residents, plants and mining area. In 1985~1998, only urban fundamental construction occupied 284 68 hm2 of cultivated lands. The area of cultivated lands in Chengguan District has decreased by 645 73 hm2 in 27 years, making up 23 66% of the total lands and with an average rate of 23 92 hm2 per year, from2 729 47 hm2 at the end of 1971 to 2 083 74 hm2 at the beginning of 1999. The cultivated lands use change per capita in Chengguan District of Lhasa shows that it has decreased year after year, from the maximum of 0 086 98 hm2 in 1972, decreasing rapidly in 1988, to 0 0492 hm2 at the beginning of 1999, accounting for 77 7% of that in 1964 and 61 4% of that in the whole country (0 076 8 hm2).

Key words: Lhasa, urban land use change, wetland, environmental problems

中图分类号: 

  • TU984