地理学报 ›› 1981, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 303-314.doi: 10.11821/xb198103006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

全新世滦河三角洲相和沉积模式

高善明   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1981-07-15 发布日期:1981-07-15

FACIES AND SEDIMENTARY MODEL OF THE LUAN RIVERDELTA

Gao Shanming   

  1. Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1981-07-15 Published:1981-07-15

摘要: 滦河发源于内蒙古高原,中游横穿燕山山地,自滦县大桥向南流入下游平原,在乐亭县王庄子公社汇入渤海,全长877公里,流域面积约44,900平方公里。 滦河是渤海湾北岸一条强流量多沙性河流。据滦县站实测,年平均流量148米3/秒(历年最大洪峰流量34,000米3/秒,1962年),年平均悬移质输沙量2,670万吨(最大8,790万吨,1959年)。

关键词: 滦河三角洲, 三角洲前缘, 沙坝, 全新世中期, 三角洲平原, 沉积模式, 相和, 色砂, 堆积体, 滨岸

Abstract: Since the Holocene, five secondary deltaic units, belonging to five differentstages have been built. They belong to the Early Holocene (8,000 years B. P.), theMiddle Holocene (8,000 to 3,000 yrs. B. P.), the Early Historical (3,000 to 900 yrs. B.P.), the Late Historical (900 to 100 yrs. B. P.) and recent periods (since 1915) re-spectively.Although the magnitude of the five secondary deltaic units and the respectivepcation of the river mouth varied in different stages, the formation of the delta fol-lowed always the same process.Luan River is a heavily sediment-laden river on the north shore of BohaiBay. In flood season, this river is characterized by abrupt rising and falling ofwater, hence the capacity of sediment transport. That is why the river channels arehighly braided and frequently change their courses, and the delta advance quicklytoward the sea.As the tides are low along this part of coast, Luan River Delta develops underthe joint action of the river and the sea waves. The mid-fine sands carried by theriver into the sea are deposited mainly at the river mouth. They are soon workedupon by the waves and constructed into sand bars which are roughly paralled to thedelta front. To the south of the present Luan River mouth, there are four groups ofsand bars and islands arranged in echelon, that is each group is a little off set to thewest than the group just to the north of it. We may conclude that the more pro-truding the sand bars are, the more recently formed they are.The scouring or silting change of the delta front depends on the quantity of sedi-ment coming from Luan River. The Recent Delta, owing to the abundance of incom-ing sediment is fast prograding. The Late Historical Stage Delta, as it is still withinreach of the sediment from the present river, still retains its fringing sand barsintact, while at the mouth of Daqing River and to the west of it, some of the sand barsbelonging to the deltas of earlier stages are disintegrating into islands and the deltaplain has been turned into tidal flats as sediment supply from the river is no longeravailable and wave action predominates.