地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (12): 1268-1276.doi: 10.11821/xb200812004

• 产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

20 世纪90 年代中国乡镇企业变革及其地方效应

杨晓光1, 樊杰2   

  1. 1. 浙江省城乡规划设计研究院, 杭州310007;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-21 修回日期:2008-08-04 出版日期:2008-12-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:杨晓光(1972-), 男, 安徽淮南人, 主要从事区域规划与城市规划、区域发展等方面的理论和实践研究。 E-mail: yangxg@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(4040101)

Transformations and Local Effects of China's Township and Village Enterprises in the 1990s

YANG Xiaoguang11, FAN Jie2   

  1. 1. Zhejiang Urban & Rural Planning Design Institute, Hangzhou 310007, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2008-01-21 Revised:2008-08-04 Online:2008-12-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.4040101

摘要:

以1993 年和2000 年对中国七个不同乡镇的近百家乡镇企业和近4000 名企业职工两次 实地调研的数据为基础, 运用实证研究的方法, 探讨了20 世纪90 年代中国乡镇企业改制过 程中乡镇财政收入、乡镇企业职工工资和福利以及农村劳动力转移的变化。结果表明: 乡镇 企业改制对我国农村地区的社会经济造成了较为深刻的影响, 由于乡镇工业发展缓慢和集体工业的改制, 私营经济成为农村经济的主体, 其与乡镇政府的直接经济联系有所减弱, 乡镇企业税收对财政的支撑作用有所减弱; 乡镇企业职工工资有不同程度的增长, 但增长幅度不大, 乡镇企业职工的福利没有得到显著改善, 土地的社会保障功能仍然十分突出; 私营企业 通过提高劳动效率、加大劳动强度和增加劳动时间来增加企业效益, 这也导致90 年代后期乡镇企业对劳动力吸引能力的减弱。乡镇企业劳动力市场基本还局限在镇区范围, 只有当镇区劳动力资源短缺时, 跨区域的劳动力市场才会发育。

关键词: 中国, 乡镇企业, 改制, 地方效应

Abstract:

This paper, using the method of substantial evidence research, studies transformations and effects of China's township and village enterprises in the late 20th century based on the field investigated data for seven towns. The transformations of township and village enterprises in China have influenced the town government revenue, employees' wages and welfare and village labor force migration. Results show that, in this connection, the transformation of collective enterprises has played an important role in the private sector's development since the 1990s. One indication is the dramatic decline of the employees in collective enterprises and the increases of employees in private enterprises. On the other hand, the privatization of industrial enterprises created problems for the town government such as the unemployment in collective enterprises and the private enterprises' reduction of profits to the local government. The process of privatizing collective enterprises together with tax reforms caused the main drop in income for townships; the wages of township and village enterprises' employees containing the growth of different degrees, but the increasing range is not very big. The welfare of township and village enterprises' employees obviously did not change, and most workers are engaged in agricultural activity with their families. Sticking to agricultural activities granted them the security to return to farming in case that they lost their nonagricultural jobs. Because the township and village enterprises have come to slow growth, and the private enterprises increased the production by increasing labor time and intensity, the rural enterprises are absorbing less surplus labor force than before. The township and village enterprises prefer applicants from their own township. Only when the local labor market is exhausted can the employees from outside the township be employed.

Key words: China, township and village enterprises, transformation, local effects