地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (3): 320-330.doi: 10.11821/xb201003007

• 地貌与第四纪 • 上一篇    下一篇

深圳海岸壶穴的形态及空间分布特征

王为, 许刘兵, 吴正, 黄山   

  1. 华南师范大学地貌与第四纪环境研究所, 广州510631
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-21 修回日期:2009-10-12 出版日期:2010-03-30 发布日期:2010-07-24
  • 作者简介:王为(1956-), 博士, 教授, 主要研究方向: 地貌与第四纪; 海岸环境与管理。E-mail: wangw@scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(40871020; 40601012); 广东省自然科学基金(7005836) 资助项目

Shape and Spatial Distribution Features of Marine Potholes on the Coast of Shenzhen, China

WANG Wei, XU Liu-bing, WU Zheng, HUANG Shan   

  1. Geography and Quaternary Environment Institute, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2009-08-21 Revised:2009-10-12 Online:2010-03-30 Published:2010-07-24
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40871020; No.40601012; Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, No.7005836

摘要:

对广东深圳西冲湾海滩东侧基岩海岸上壶穴的形态特征进行详细测量并对其位置和高程做三角高程测量。结合野外观测结果从经典统计学和空间统计学的角度定量地描述壶穴的形态和空间分布特征及其在基岩海岸发育过程中的地貌作用。研究得出以下结论:西冲海岸壶穴趋向形成于节理、断裂、层面等岩体软弱带,壶穴的形态和分布受这些软弱带控制,但形成于软弱带的具体位置却是随机的;西冲海岸壶穴的形成、扩大和加深实际上是对二级平台产生破坏,但壶穴以现代低潮线为下蚀极限;海岸壶穴是现代海岸动力侵蚀过程的产物,只要动力、岩石条件适合,壶穴随时都可形成;海岸壶穴的形态不仅与流水动力有关,而且与岩石硬度及壶穴发育过程有关;海岸壶穴与河流壶穴一样,可以在形成于各种类型的岩石,起源于各种各样的凹坑;海岸与河流的水动力差异导致了海岸壶穴和河流壶穴形态差异。

关键词: 海岸壶穴, 空间分析, 基岩海岸, 形态特征, 深圳

Abstract:

A detail measurement is made for the coastal potholes on Xichong coast of Dapeng Peninsula, Guangdong. Classical and spatial statistics are used to quantitatively describe the features of the pothole shape, pothole spatial distribution and how the pothole development affect the shore platform of the coast. Results show that (1) The coastal potholes tend to form at the weaknesses appearing in coastal rock, such as joints, faults and bedding planes, and the shape and the distribution of the potholes are controlled by the weaknesses and, however, the specific position of the weakness where a pothole formed is random. (2) The result of pothole forming, deepening and expanding is to break down the second shore platforms, but the downward erosion of the potholes does not exceed the low tide level of the local coast. (3) Coastal potholes are the products of modern coastal erosion processes and can be formed at anytime, as long as the suitable conditions, such as coastal dynamic environments and rocks, are available. (4) The morphological features of marine potholes are not only related to the fluid dynamics, but also to the rock hardness and the different stages in their development. (5) Like river potholes, marine potholes can develop in all types of rocks and originate from different kinds of small pits on the rock surface. (6) The difference between coastal and river dynamics leads to the difference in marine and river pothole shapes.

Key words: coastal pothole, spatial analysis, rocky coast, shape feature, Xichong coast