地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (12): 1327-1336.doi: 10.11821/xb200812010

• 能源与环境 • 上一篇    

基于GIS 的中国人居环境指数模型的建立与应用

封志明1, 唐焰1,2, 杨艳昭1, 张丹1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-03-11 修回日期:2008-09-25 出版日期:2008-12-25 发布日期:2008-12-25
  • 作者简介:封志明(1963-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要研究方向农业资源高效利用与区域可持续 发展, 旁及资源科学的理论探讨。E-mail: fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家人口发展战略研究项目(发规2008-1); 国家科技支撑计划(2006BAC18B01)

Establishment and Application of Human Settlements Environment Index Model (HEI) Based on GIS

FENG Zhiming1, TANG Yan1,2, YANG Yanzhao1, ZHANG Dan1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2008-03-11 Revised:2008-09-25 Online:2008-12-25 Published:2008-12-25
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Program of the CAS, No.KZCX2-YW- 323, National Key Technology R&D Program, No. 2006BAC18B01

摘要:

以1km×1km 栅格为基本单元, 选取地形、气候、水文、植被等自然因子, 构建了基 于人居环境指数的中国人居环境自然适宜性评价模型, 运用GIS 技术, 定量评价了中国不同 地区的人居环境自然适宜性, 揭示了中国人居环境的自然格局与地域特征。研究表明: 中国 人居环境指数整体呈现由东南沿海向西北内陆递减的趋势; 人居环境指数与人口密度显著相 关, 二者的对数曲线拟合度R2 值高达0.87, 人居环境指数可以综合反映区域人居环境的自然 适宜程度。中国人居环境自然适宜性评价结果显示, 中国人居环境适宜地区430.47×104 km2 , 接近国土面积的45%, 相应人口占全国的96.56%, 其中3/4 以上的人口集聚在约占1/4 人居 环境高度适宜和比较适宜地区; 中国人居环境临界适宜地区225.11×104 km2 , 占国土面积的 23.45%, 相应人口4112 万, 占全国的3.24%, 人口密度每平方公里18 人, 是中国人居环境 适宜与否的过渡地区; 中国人居环境不适宜地区304.42×104 km2, 人口249 万, 不到全国的 0.2%, 人口密度每平方公里不足1 人, 大片地区沦为“无人区”。

关键词: 人居环境, 人居环境指数, 人居环境自然适宜性, GIS, 中国

Abstract:

With the degeneration of environment and acceleration of urbanization, human settlements have attracted great attention worldwide. For the necessity of natural environment evaluation of human settlements, by choosing terrain, land cover, climate and water condition as the evaluation factors, based on Geographic Information System technique, this paper sets up the human settlements environment index (HEI) model and evaluates the natural environment suitability of human settlements in China with it. The results show that: the HEI of China decreases from southeast to northwest in general, which reflects the regional difference of natural environment suitability of human settlements in China; and HEI is significantly correlated with population density at grid size and the R2 value for them amounts to 0.87, which indicates that natural environment suitability of human settlements has a significant influence on population distribution. From southeast to northwest and from hilly regions and plains to plateaus and mountainous areas, the natural environment suitability of human settlements in China decreases in general. Specifically, the high suitable region, with a land area of 95.92×104 km2 and a population of 380 million, is mainly located in Southeast Hilly Region and most parts of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; most parts of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Sichuan Basin, Guanzhong Basin and southern part of North China Plain belong to the moderate suitable region, accounting for 1/6 of a land area and one half of population of China; with a land area of 167.78×104 km2 and a population of 226 million, the low suitable region mainly includes Northeast China Plain, northern part of North China Plain and Loess Plateau; eastern part of Tibetan Plateau, Junggar Basin and Inner Mongolia Plateau belong to the critical suitable region, covering a land area of 225.11×104 km2, and 41 million people live in this region; and the non-suitable region mainly includes most parts of Tibetan Plateau, Tarim Basin and Alex Plateau, where the land area is 304.42 km2, but there are only 2.49 million people. From the high suitable to the non-suitable region, the land area increases with the decrease of population density, indicating that the population in China is mainly concentrated in natural environment suitable region.

Key words: human settlements, human settlements environment index, natural environment suitability, GIS, China