地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (6): 635-645.doi: 10.11821/xb200806008

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国地级以上城市腹地的测度分析

潘竟虎1,2, 石培基1, 董晓峰2   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州730070;
    2. 兰州大学资源环境学院, 兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-13 修回日期:2008-01-24 出版日期:2008-06-25 发布日期:2008-06-25
  • 作者简介:潘竟虎(1974-), 男, 甘肃嘉峪关人, 讲师, 在职博士生, 主要从事GIS 与空间经济分析研究。 E-mail: panjh_nwnu@nwnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40671061)

Measurements for Urban Hinterland Area of Cities at Prefecture Level or above in China

PAN Jinghu1,2, SHI Peiji1, DONG Xiaofeng2   

  1. 1. College of Resource and Environment Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. College of Geographic and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2007-09-13 Revised:2008-01-24 Online:2008-06-25 Published:2008-06-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40671061

摘要:

一个明确而又合理的城市腹地范围, 是保证一定区域内各城市实现合理功能整合的关 键, 也是对城市经济区进行各项研究的基础。通过构建衡量城市综合规模的指标体系, 运用 主成分分析法计算中国283 个地级及以上城市的规模值。在GIS 软件支持下, 将中国划分为 5 km×5 km 的格网, 利用场强模型, 对2004 年283 个地级及以上城市的腹地进行了划分, 比较腹地的范围及相互关系, 并与省域和市域行政范围进行了叠合分析, 实现了城市腹地测 定、分析的可视化。结果表明: 中国地级及以上城市规模值差异较大, 最大和最小城市规模 相差达284 倍。场强值分布呈现明显的东、中、西递减的分异特征, 与经济发展的梯度差异 一致。中、东部的城市影响力的弱势区域全部分布在省域交界地带, 在场强值大于12 的级别 上, 东、中部城市的场强影响范围连成一片。各城市腹地范围相差亦较大, 最大和最小城市 腹地相差达5488 倍。各城市在地理位置上不一定位于其腹地的几何中心, 偏移比较大的城市 往往成对分布。城市腹地与省域行政范围吻合度较差, 根据腹地在市域行政范围内的面积比 例, 将城市分为4 类, 并提出相应的空间发展策略。依据腹地的分析结果将全国划分为3 个 一级城市经济区、11 个二级区和38 个三级区。

关键词: 城市腹地, 城市经济区, GIS, 城镇体系, 中国

Abstract:

Hinterland supplies resources for the economic activities of central cities, so the range and the quality of hinterland are very important to city's development. However, the existing hinterland delimitation models are not enough to explain and analyze the complexities of urban system in China for their lack of maneuverability and their limit to only one indicator. In this paper, complex components for calculating the urban synthetical scale value are selected, with consideration to the following five specific aspects, i.e., population, economy, commerce, traffic and government capability, and the value is calculated by means of principal component analysis. Then, China is divided into 338828 grids, the scale of which is 5 km ×5 km, with the support of ArcGIS software. The field-strength of each grid influenced by cities at prefecture level or above in China can also be calculated. Meanwhile, each grid is allocated to exclusive city in the light of "maximal field-strength choosing" principle, and then, the hinterland area of 283 cities at prefecture level or above in 2004 in China can be delimitated automatically. Finally, the coherence and difference between hinterland area and administrative division are studied by overlaying these areas with province boundaries in order to provide scientific basis for adjustment of administrative division and delimitation of urban economic region. Results show that (1) the difference of urban hinterland cities was obvious among the cities at prefecture level or above in China, and the concrete facts show that hinterland area of the western cities is larger than that of the eastern ones, in which the maximum hinterland area is 5488 times of the minimum one. (2) The relationships between urban hinterlands are identified as four types: coexistence, inclusion, semi-inclusion and competition. (3) The coincidence degree between urban hinterland areas and their administrative division is lower. On the basis of measurement and analysis for urban hinterland, a three-level zoning project of urban economic regions of the whole country is put forward. According to the project, the first-level division includes North Region, Middle-and-east Region and South Region; the second-level division includes 11 regions, which are North China, Northeast China, East China, Shandong, Fujian, Central China, South China, Southwest China, Tibet, Northwest China and Xinjiang; and the third-level division is comprised of 38 districts, which are named after cities at provincial capital level or above. The measurement results also indicate that application of GIS spatial analysis methods to delimitate urban hinterland is convenient, precise and feasible, which can be an alternative approach of urban economic region division and urban system planning.

Key words: urban hinterland, urban economic region, GIS, urban system, Gansu province, China