地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (6): 625-634.doi: 10.11821/xb200806007

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于手绘草图的北京居民认知地图变形及因素分析

申思, 薛露露, 刘瑜   

  1. 北京大学遥感与地理信息系统研究所, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2007-06-26 修回日期:2007-12-05 出版日期:2008-06-25 发布日期:2008-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘瑜(1971-), 男, 副教授, 主要从事地理信息科学研究。E-mail: liuyu@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:申思(1983-), 女, 硕士研究生, 从事空间认知和GIS 应用研究。E-mail: shensi@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家高科技研究发展计划(863 计划) (2007AA12Z216); 国家自然科学基金资助项目(40701134)

Beijing Residents' Cognitive Map Distortion and Sources Analysis Based on Sketch Mapping Method

SHEN Si, XUE Lulu, LIU Yu   

  1. Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2007-06-26 Revised:2007-12-05 Online:2008-06-25 Published:2008-06-25
  • Supported by:

    National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), No. 2007AA12Z216; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40701134

摘要:

认知地图是外界环境在人们头脑中的表征, 往往与现实地图不一致, 研究认知地图及 其变形对城市规划和建设具有重要意义。手绘草图是当前挖掘认知地图的一种主要方法。通 过问卷调查, 获得北京居民手绘草图样本, 分析草图中体现的北京城市意象要素。采用二维 回归(BR) 与标准偏差椭圆方法定量测度认知地图整体和局部的变形。对于二维回归计算出 的变形系数(DI) 进一步采用蒙特卡罗模拟计算其变形半径, 得出北京居民的认知地图平均变 形在2-3 km, 整体变形以二环为界, 内小外大, 并呈西南—东北斜向拉伸, 东西收缩的趋 势, 局部变形北部大于南部。个体的变形系数与对地标的熟悉程度负相关, 男性小于女性, 驾车者小于不驾车者, 日常活动范围越广、出行频率越高、居住时间越久、距离锚点越近的 被试认知变形越小。

关键词: 认知地图, 变形, 手绘草图, 二维回归, 蒙特卡罗模拟, 标准偏差椭圆, 北京

Abstract:

Cognitive map, an internal representation of outside environment, is usually inconsistent with the real map. Cognitive map and its distortions are very significant for urban planning and construction. To date, sketch mapping is a dominant method to externalize cognitive map. In this study, we conduct a questionnaire investigation in Beijing by radom sampling of people to draw a sketch of Beijing city, then analyze major public imaginary of the city. By a bidimensional regression (BR) along with Standard Deviational Ellipse, we quantitatively measure the global and local map distortions, and derive distortion index (DI). Besides, we use Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the radius of the distortion based on DI. It shows that the average cognitive distortion of Beijing residents is 2 km to 3 km, the global distortion is elongated in the southwest-northeast direction and contracted in the east-west direction, and the northern local distortions are more obvious than the southern ones. Individual DI is negatively correlated with the extent of the familiarity of all landmarks; and remarkably correlated with other factors, such as gender, driving or not, the scope of activity, daily travel frequency, years of residence, and distance to anchor point.

Key words: cognitive map, distortion, sketch map, bidimensional regression (BR), Monte Carlo simulation, standard deviational ellipse, Beijing