地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (6): 981-990.doi: 10.11821/xb200506011

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆准噶尔盆地沙尘天气的地表环境判别

钱亦兵1, 吴兆宁2, 杨青3, 张立运1, 汪溪远2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院,乌鲁木齐 830046;
    3. 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所,乌鲁木齐 830002
  • 收稿日期:2005-06-04 修回日期:2005-08-25 出版日期:2005-11-25 发布日期:2005-11-25
  • 作者简介:钱亦兵 (1956-), 女, 江苏人, 研究员, 主要从事干旱区环境与荒漠化形成机制研究。E-mail: dt6@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金 (200321103); 所长基金特别支持项目 (20032059)

Discrimination to Ground-surface Conditions of Sand-dust Event Occurrences in Junggar Basin

QIAN Yibing1, WU Zhaoning2, YANG Qing3, ZHANG Liyun1, WANG Xiyuan2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China;
    3. Institute of Desert and Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Urumqi 830002, China
  • Received:2005-06-04 Revised:2005-08-25 Online:2005-11-25 Published:2005-11-25
  • Supported by:

    Natural Science Foundation Project of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions, No.200321103; the special support project from the Director's fund of the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geology under CAS, No.20032059

摘要:

在沙尘暴天气多发的季节里,对中国重要沙尘源区之一的准噶尔南部典型地区的地貌、土壤、植被及人类活动影响诸方面做了实地调查和取样,以及实验室分析,遴选出植被盖度、植物群落多样性、生态优势度、表层土壤含水量、土壤有机质、土壤质地、全盐含量、pH值等作为影响该区起沙过程的地表参数/变量。借助SPSS10.0软件系统中的典型判别分析 (CDA),对准噶尔南部沙尘天气高发的艾比湖地区和中发的古尔班通古特沙漠地表特征进行了有效判别。结果显示,广泛分布棕灰漠土和灰漠土,并且农用土地开垦强烈的艾比湖地区,影响地表稳定性的消极因素主要是土壤较高的pH、有机质含量及植被生态优势度。而以固定、半固定风沙土为主,内部少受人类高强度开发的古尔班通古特沙漠,地表良好的抗风蚀性主要得益于较高的植被盖度、植物群落的多样性和较粗的土壤质地。判别结果还显示,原属沙尘天气少发的克拉玛依农业开发区有相当面积的土地已具沙尘天气高发区的地表特征,从而对人类活动可能引发的灾害性环境问题提出警示。

关键词: 沙尘天气, 地表环境, 判别, 准噶尔盆地

Abstract:

During the springtime periods of frequent sand-dust event occurrences, we investigated the landforms, soils, vegetations and impacts of human activities in the Junggar Basin, which is one of the important source regions of sand-dust events in China, and took the samples and data of soils and vegetations. The physical-chemical properties of these soil samples were analyzed, and the characteristic indices of these vegetations were calculated. The vegetation cover, community diversity, ecologic dominant degree, topsoil moisture, soil organic matter, soil texture, soil salts and pH were chosen as the ground-surface parameters/variables of impacting the process of sand-dust event occurrence. With Canonical Discriminant Analysis of SPSS10.0 software system, this paper effectively discriminates the ground-surface characteristics of the study regions, the Aibi Lake region with high-frequent sand-dust events and the Gurbantunggut Desert with medium-frequent sand-dust events. The results show: in the Aibi Lake region where the gray-brown desert soil and gray desert soil are widely distributed and agricultural reclamations are intensive, the passive factors impacting its ground-surface stability are mainly the high pH values and organic matter contents of soils and the ecologic dominant degrees of vegetations. Then, in the Gurbantunggut Desert where stable and semi-stable aeolian sandy soils are mainly distributed and are less disturbed by human exploitation, the erosion-resistance of its ground-surface benefits from the high vegetation cover, plant community diversity and coarser soil texture. The results of discriminant also show that the agricultural development region in Karamay (Kelamayi) with a large area of the reclaimed land, which belonged to a low frequent region of sand-dust event occurrences, has had the ground-surface characteristics of the regions with high frequent sand-dust event occurrences. This brings forward a caution to the occurrences of calamitous environment issues possibly resulted from human activities.

Key words: sand-dust event, ground-surface conditions, discrimination, Junggar Basin