地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (6): 883-893.doi: 10.11821/xb200506001

• 区域经济 •    下一篇

建立中国国民幸福生活核算体系的构想

程国栋, 徐中民, 徐进祥   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冻土工程国家重点实验室,兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2005-03-22 修回日期:2005-07-06 出版日期:2005-11-25 发布日期:2005-11-25
  • 作者简介:程国栋 (1943-), 男, 上海市人, 中国科学院院士, 中国地理学会副理事长, 主要从事水文地质、工程地质和水资源方面的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学重点基金项目 (40235053); 国家自然科学基金项目 (40201019); 多地区和部门的气候变化影响和适应性评价项目 (AS25)

Vision of Integrated Happiness Accounting System in China

CHENG Guodong, XU Zhongmin, XU Jinxiang   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2005-03-22 Revised:2005-07-06 Online:2005-11-25 Published:2005-11-25
  • Supported by:

    Key project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40235053; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40201019; the Assessment of Impact and Adaptation of Climate Change (AIACC) Project, No.AS25

摘要:

从国家核算体系的演变和特点入手,分析了人文发展的理论内涵和中国人文发展面临的环境和社会压力,在详细分析我国是否存在环境库兹涅茨曲线的基础上,指出依靠经济增长来缓解环境压力不应当作为人文发展的主要战略核心目标。同时分析了幸福的内涵,详细讨论了人文发展状态评价的主观评价方法—国民幸福生活年和人类需求矩阵,最后提出了我国进行国民幸福核算的建议和简化框架,并针对该建议提出了聚焦贫困人口、发展循环经济、关注文化发展、处理好公平和效益的指导原则。

关键词: 国民幸福生活, 核算体系, 人文发展战略, 环境库兹涅茨曲线, 中国

Abstract:

Enhancing and sustaining the happiness life or the quality of life (QOL) is a primary and ultimate goal of national policy. First, the evolvement tendency and characteristic of national accounting system have been identified. The fundamental characteristic of GDP, green accounting and ISEW is that these accounting systems are still based on measuring how much is being consumed, with the assumption that more consumption leads to more welfare. Happiness or quality of life as a completely different approach shall be taken to look directly at actual well-being achieved, which will separate the means (consumption) from the ends (happiness or QOL) without assuming one is correlated with the other. Secondly, the theoretical implications of human development have been discussed and three constraints have been identified as environmental constraint, equality and efficiency. Based on brief introduction of environmental and social constraints faced by China's human development, we analysed the relationship between economic growth and environmental pressure from the view of consumption and production in China. The overall findings don't support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, and our theoretical analysis can not support the claim that technological progress cannot reconcile the conflict between economic growth and environmental conservation. China should replace much of their faith in technological progress with the pursuit of other forms of cultural progress. Thirdly, The concept of happiness or QOL and its measurement approach have been introduced. If improving gross national happiness (GNH) is indeed the goal of social policies and programs, it follows that appropriate national aggregate accounting system should attempt to measure the extent to which policies actually improve GNH. GNH can be the measurement components of an overall plan to maximize social well-being. The first step in the process would be to identify the constitutive components of a preferred society in the greatest detail possible through a stakeholder dialogue process. This information would be used to identify the relevant instrumental components. The second step would be to identify the metrics of GNH's instrumental components. Direct measurement, indirect measurement and social choice have been recommended as alternative instruments to resolve the complex measurement. A specific action plan for maximizing GNH can be developed based on the above identifying process. Once these are established, the following four guidelines such as focusing on poor people, developing cyclic economy, considering cultural development and harmonizing the equality and efficiency may be useful in developing a successful plan.

Key words: gross national happiness, accounting system, human development strategies, environmental Kuznets curve, China