地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (6): 938-947.doi: 10.11821/xb200406017

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江南京段历史洪水位追溯

何华春,王颖,李书恒   

  1. 南京大学海岸与海岛开发教育部重点实验室,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-08 修回日期:2004-10-09 出版日期:2004-11-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:何华春 (1975-), 女, 湖南省长沙人, 博士研究生。E-mail: hehuachun@tom.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40271004)

Tracing Flood Water Level along Nanjing Cliff Bank of the Yangtze River

HE Huachun, WANG Ying, LI Shuheng   

  1. The Key Laboratory of Coast & Island Development of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2004-06-08 Revised:2004-10-09 Online:2004-11-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40271004

摘要:

沿长江南岸幕府山、燕子矶岸段的石灰岩崖壁上,保留着数道受江水浸淹形成的色深且具有溶蚀孔隙的水平印痕,沿江一线分布。在采石矶岸段的岩壁上也存在着高程大致相当的水位痕迹,反映出是保存在长江南岸岩壁上的区域性洪水位遗迹。经查阅现代水文记录与历史文献,分析对比区域地貌与沉积地层,初步论定:高出长江江面5~6 m,高程分别为8.5 m和9.5 m的第一道和第二道水位遗迹是与现代长江洪水位相当的古洪水位遗迹,目前虽然已脱离长江江面,但现代长江洪水仍可达到此高度,其重现期为10~50年;高程为10.5 m的第三道水位遗迹较南京有文字记载的百年一遇特大洪水位仍高出0.3 m,相当于南京地区100~200年一遇的大洪水水位,由此印证长江南京段防洪堤高度合适;而最高的一道古水位遗迹高程为12.8 m,可能相当于全新世高海面时的洪水位。

关键词: 长江下游, 南京, 石灰岩崖岸, 洪水位

Abstract:

Some remnant marks of flood water level, characterized by dark color and with small eroded holes distributed on the horizontal level marks, are found along the hillside of Nanjing. The same features of the remnant marks of flood water level are also found on the cape of Caishiji cliff of Cuiluo Mountain. Detailed analyses on the altitude of the remnant water level marks and sediment grain-size collected inside the eroded holes and on the Yangtze River floodplain are carried out and comparisons with flood historical literature and modern flood water level records are made. Based upon which the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The altitude of the first and second ancient water level marks at 8.5 m and 9.5 m which exceed the modern Yangtze River water surface by 5-6 m are considered as paleoflood remnant because they have been disengaged from present Yangtze River water surface for a long time. (2) The altitude of the third ancient water level mark is 10.5 m, which is 0.3 m higher than the catastrophic flood in 100 years recorded in history. According to historical records of the Yangtze River flood, the level this paleoflood event may be equivalent to the level of a catastrophic flood in 100-200 years. (3) The altitude of the highest ancient water level mark is 12.8 m which is probably equal to the height of the paleoflood taking place in high sea level time of the Holocene.

Key words: lower Yangtze River, Nanjing, cliff bank of limestone, flood water level