地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (4): 495-500.doi: 10.11821/xb200004012

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海滦河流域河流系统生态环境需水量计算

李丽娟, 郑红星   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-30 修回日期:2000-05-26 出版日期:2000-07-15 发布日期:2000-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院95重大项目(KZ951-A1-203-01);国家95攻关项目(96-912-04-01S-03);中国科学院地理科学与资源研

Environmental and Ecological Water Consumption of River Systems in Haihe-Luanhe Basins

LI Li juan, ZHENG Hong xing   

  1. Institute of Geographical Sciences & Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2000-03-30 Revised:2000-05-26 Online:2000-07-15 Published:2000-07-15
  • Supported by:
    key ninth-five-plan project of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No.KZ951-A1-203-01;key ninth-five-plan project of Nation,No.96-912-04-01S-03;and foreland project of Institute of Geography,CAS

摘要: 从水资源开发利用中的生态环境问题出发,探讨河流系统生态环境需水量的内涵。指出生态环境需水量是指地表水体维持特定的生态环境功能所必须蓄存和消耗的最小水量。在这一概念的基础上,构建计算河流系统生态环境需水量的理论基础。以海滦河流域为例,分三部分(即河流基本生态环境需水量、河流输沙排盐水量和湖泊洼地生态环境需水量)概算了区域河流系统的生态环境需水量。计算结果表明海滦河流域生态需水量为124×108m3,约占流域地表径流总量的54%。认为海滦河流域水资源开发率超过40%时,就会对生态环境造成严重影响。

关键词: 生态环境需水量, 河流系统, 海滦河流域

Abstract: In the history of water utilization and development, our attention has always been paid on the benefit we could get from rivers while environmental and ecological function of the river system used to be neglected. Thus the activities of water utilization and development were accompanied by more and more serious environmental and ecological problems. In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper has proposed a concept of environmental and ecological water consumption. In general, we defined that the environmental and ecological water consumption means the minimum water that must be saved in or consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve their environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water consumption are determined. Water consumption can be divided into three parts, i.e. the basic water consumption of rivers, water consumption for transportation of sediments and salts, water consumption for evaporation of the lakes. The methods for calculating the different parts of water consumption were shown in expressions. In a case study on Hai Luanhe Basins, the hydrological records before 1960, which may represent the natural conditions of the river systems, were used for calculating. The results of the calculation have shown that the environmental and ecological water consumption in the Basins is about 124?10 8m3, including 57?10 8m3 for basic consumption, 63?10 8m3 for transportation of sediments and salts and 4?10 8m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. Thus it was estimated that the total amount of environmental and ecological water consumption accounts 54% of the total amount of runoff (228?10 8m3). However, there are still some aspects of environmental and ecological consumption that are not under our consideration. It should be realized that the required amount of environmental and ecological water consumption must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, if the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the basins is more than 40%, the problems of eco environment will be serious but the current utilization rate of the Basins is as high as 80%. It is on the urgency to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate those problems existed and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crises that are still not clear.

Key words: environmental and ecological water consumption, river systems, Haihe Luanhe Basins

中图分类号: 

  • X171