地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (4): 407-416.doi: 10.11821/xb200004003

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于GIS的北京城市土地利用扩展模式

刘盛和, 吴传钧, 沈洪泉   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-03-06 修回日期:2000-06-10 出版日期:2000-07-15 发布日期:2000-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(49731040)

A GIS based Model of Urban Land Use Growth in Beijing

LIU Sheng he, WU Chuan jun, SHEN Hong quan   

  1. Institute of Geographical Sciences & Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2000-03-06 Revised:2000-06-10 Online:2000-07-15 Published:2000-07-15
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.49731040

摘要: 采用GIS空间分析技术,对1982~1997年期间北京城市土地利用扩展的时空过程进行空间聚类和历史形态分析。证实工业用地的高速外向扩展是北京城市土地利用规模“超常膨胀”的主要原因。

关键词: 城市土地利用, 扩展强度指数, 空间分异, GIS, 北京

Abstract: Based on the land use maps of Beijing in 1982, 1992 and 1997, its spatial and temporal process of urban land use growth was analyzed through spatial clustering and historical morphological approaches. The growth intensity index (GII), was employed instead of growth speed to describe the spatial differentiation of urban land use growth. Assisted by spatial analysis techniques of GIS, the average GIIs per year (AGIIPY) of 155 communes or towns during 1982~1992 and 1992~1997 were calculated and then classified through the Natural Breaks method, and the spatial differentiation maps of urban land use growth in Beijing during 1982~1992 and 1992~1997 were made. This paper found: (1) Industrial land is the most important element of urban land use growth in Beijing, and its contribution rate is on the increase, which is different from the general Western urban growth model driven by residential expansion. Since 1982, the industrial land had been keeping expanded at the average rate of 24~25 km2 per year. It is extraordinary high especially during the 1992~1997 period, while that of residential land and urban land use dropped by 59% and 24%, to 3 4 km2 per year and 29 8 km2 per year respectively. Thus, the contribution rate of industrial land to urban land use growth increased from 64 91% in 1982~1992 to 80 67% in 1992~1997. (2) The spatial pattern of urban land use growth in Beijing was in distinct concentric sprawl. With the growth centers’ gradual shift from the inner to outside, the new added urban land use were increased in distinct concentric zones and continually encroached upon the green spaces among the central mass and those “dispersed constellations”. The total area of green spaces for isolating built up areas in General Plan of Beijing, was 314 km2 in 1958, reduced to 260 km2 in 1983 and 160 km2 in 1993. The concentric sprawl pattern seriously destroyed the spatial structure of “dispersed constellations” designed by the General Plan of Beijing, and also badly worsened the regional ecological environment. (3) The growth axes of urban land use in the southern and eastern part of Beijing had stepped into their decline period. The southern and eastern part of Beijing is located in the North China Plain and have advantages in urban development space, economic and transport communication, etc., so that they are determined as the main urban development areas and direction by the latest General Plan (1991~2010). But this paper found, the two major growth axes of urban land use along the Beijing Tian Jin and Beijing Shen Zhen highways in the southern and eastern part of Beijing, had stepped into their decline period during 1992~1997. Their AGIIPY decreased from 1 63 and 1 58 during 1982~1992 to 0 86 and 0 67 respectively, and the spatial growth pattern have also switched from vigorous axial expansion to fill in among axes.

Key words: urban land use, spatial differentiation, GIS, Beijing

中图分类号: 

  • TU984