地理学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (s1): 104-113.doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1012

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

人工智能、空间分析与空间决策

梁怡   

  1. 香港中文大学地理系,香港
  • 出版日期:1997-12-15 发布日期:1997-12-15

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,SPATIAL ANALYSIS, AND SPATIAL DECISION MAKING

Yang Leang   

  1. Department of Geography and Centre for Environmental Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Online:1997-12-15 Published:1997-12-15

摘要: 本文对如何发展及应用人工智能技术于空间分析与决策作一简略的分析。文章首先介绍几种非结构性空间知识的表示及推理,进而讨论不确定性空间推理原理及方法。除了语义表示法外,文章亦对空间知识表示与获取的并行模式作出探讨,特别是神经网络与遗传算法的运用。最后,文章亦浅论了如何对非结构性空间知识、结构性空间知识(如数学及统计模型)及空间信息系统作综合及交替运用于空间分析及空间决策。并建议如何建立智能空间决策支持系统。

关键词: 空间分析, 空间决策, 结构性知识, 非结构性知识, GIS, 人工智能, 知识表示, 空间推理

Abstract: AbsractThis paper gives a brief analysis of the development and applications of artificial intelli-gence in spatial analysis and spatial decision making. Basic approaches to the representation of and inference with unstructured spatial knowledge are first introduced. They include preposi-tional and predicate logic, production systems,semantic networks, frames, and object-orented systems. The paper then discusses uncertainty in spatial inference. Basic frameworks such as probabilistic inference, subjective Bayesian,certainty factor, evidence theory,and fuzzy infer-ence are briefly examined. Theory of inclusion, a paradigm for reasoning under uncertainty,is then introduced as a general framework suitable for spatial analysis and decision making in a complex environment. In addition to the symbolic approaches, massively parallel distributed systems such as neural networks and genetic algorithms are proposed as powerful knowledge representation and inference models, especially for automatic acguisition of spatial knowledge through learning by examples. Lastly, the paper explores ways of using integratively and inter-actively spatial knowledge, unstructured and structured (such as mathematical and statistical models) ,and spatial information systems in spatial analysis and decision making. It also propos-es ways by which intelligent spatial decision support systems can be effectively built and applied to solve real-life decision problem.

Key words: Spatial analysis, spatial decision making, structured knowledge, unstruc-tured knowledge, GIS, artificial intelligence, knowledge reprentation, spa-tial inference

中图分类号: 

  • TP18