地理学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (6): 481-490.doi: 10.11821/xb199706001

• 论文 •    下一篇

北京经济基础的基本特点与变化趋势

杨开忠   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 北京 100871
  • 出版日期:1997-11-15 发布日期:1997-11-15

BASIC FEATURES AND TRENDS OF THE ECONOMIC BASE OF BEIJING

Yang Kaizhong   

  1. Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Online:1997-11-15 Published:1997-11-15

摘要: 本文利用有关人口普查和统计资料,在京、津、沪对比中对北京经济基础进行了研究。其主要结论是:(1)北京不仅是全国政治、文化中心,而且还是全国的经济中心。这种经济中心性表现在两个方面,一是全国最大的商业性服务中心,二是全国重要的耗水小且污染轻的知识和非知识密集型工业中心。(2)北京高耗水和(或)污染重的工业虽然只系地区性基础,但相对北京水和环境资源相对稀缺的特点而言,它们过度发展了。(3)与上海、天津相比,北京工业基础规模小、区域性较强,但服务基础齐全、规模大且超地区性强。天津的海上运输、仓储等基础弥补了北京的不足。(4)随着市场经济发展和可持续发展基本国策的实施,北京耗水低且污染轻的城市型和知识密集型工业以及信息密集型第三产业将会进一步集中,而耗水高和(或)污染重的工业将会进一步分散。

关键词: 北京, 经济基础, 经济中心

Abstract: In China, systematic studies on economic base of a single city is very weak. Based on the 1990 census and relevant statistics during 1991-1994, this paper is designed to study Beijing economic base systematically by comparing with those of Shanghai and Tianjin. The major conclusions include: (1) Beijing is not only the national political and cultural center but also the national economic center. The latter is reflected in the national centers of commercial service, external economy typed and knowledge intensive manufacturing industry with lower input of water and less environmental pollution, and it suits the need of the political and cultural center. (2) Although the industry with higher input of water and/or serious environmental pollution just are economic bases based on regional market, but this situation is not rational relative to Beijing’s natural endowment of water and environmental resources. (3) Beijing’s economic base of industry is smaller, more regional market based, and the economic base of service is more diverse, larger and more super regional market based than the Shanghai’ and Tianjin’s. (4) With the development of socialist market economy and implement of sustatinable development, the external economy typed and knowledge intensive manufacturing industry with lower input of water and less environmental pollution, and information intensive service industries will tend to concentrate further, and the industry with higher input of water and/or severe environmental pollution will tend to decentralize.

Key words: Beijing, economic base, economic center

中图分类号: 

  • F29(1)