地理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 78 ›› Issue (9): 2358-2372.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202309015

• 全球能源与世界地理 • 上一篇    


张晓虹1(), 陈浩2, 黄宇2, 徐建平1, 陈发虎2()   

  1. 1.复旦大学中国历史地理研究所,上海 200433
    2.中国科学院青藏高原研究所青藏高原地球系统与资源环境国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-28 修回日期:2023-06-11 出版日期:2023-09-25 发布日期:2023-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 陈发虎(1962-), 男, 陕西人, 教授, 中国科学院院士, 博士生导师, 主要从事气候环境变化与环境考古研究。E-mail: fhchen@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张晓虹(1965-), 女, 河北人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事历史文化地理与历史城市地理学研究。E-mail: zhangxiaohong@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

Historical geographical evolution in Ladakh region

ZHANG Xiaohong1(), CHEN Hao2, HUANG Yu2, XU Jianping1, CHEN Fahu2()   

  1. 1. Center for Historical Geographical Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Earth System, Resources and Environment,Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2022-03-28 Revised:2023-06-11 Published:2023-09-25 Online:2023-09-28
  • Supported by:
    Consultation and Evaluation Project of the Faculty of Chinese Academy of Sciences(2020-DX05-B-018)


拉达克位于青藏高原西北部、喜马拉雅山脉西段和印度河上游谷地,现为印控克什米尔地区一部分,自古是南亚西北部通向中国西藏阿里地区和新疆南部的“咽喉要地”。有关拉达克的已有研究大多侧重于对其地方历史和地域文化的考论,缺少从长时间尺度研究该地区的历史变迁及其与中国的多元关系和地缘价值,在国内外网络上也流传一些对拉达克地区历史地理问题的错误认识和不当地理图件,亟需从学理层面对拉达克地区进行全面厘正。本文结合多种历史文献和地图资料,在详细梳理前人研究成果的基础上,对拉达克在公元1—21世纪的地名沿革、历史演变、地域范围进行论证,并分析其在中国西部地区国土安全中的意义。结果表明:① 作为中国西藏故土,拉达克在公元9世纪以前是吐蕃王朝的一部分,9世纪中叶吐蕃王朝瓦解后,它成为吐蕃王室后裔建立的阿里地方政权的重要组成部分。13世纪拉达克再次统一在中国元朝的疆域内,历经明清两代。19世纪中叶拉达克为位于克什米尔南部的查谟土邦兼并,随后被并入英印殖民地,1947年由独立后的印度派军占据。② 拉达克地区历史演变曲折,地名多次变化,但近代为查谟土邦吞并时,拉达克地域范围仅指位于西喜马拉雅山和喀喇昆仑山之间、以列城为中心的印度河谷上游地区。③ 拉达克地区历史地理过程的复杂性,使得其成为中印西段边境印度制造摩擦的主要区域,中国应积极应对印度方面持续的相关政策。

关键词: 拉达克, 西藏阿里, 克什米尔, 吐蕃, 喜马拉雅山脉, 巴尔蒂斯坦


Ladakh is located in the northwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the western section of the Himalayas, and the upper reaches of the Indus River valley. It is now part of Indian-controlled Kashmir. Since ancient times, Ladakh has been the "key point" from northwest South Asia to the Ngari Prefecture of Xizang and southern Xinjiang. However, most existing research on Ladakh focuses on its local history and culture. Although there are some related works on geopolitical relations, few have studied the historical changes of this region and its subordinate relationship and geographical value with China over a long time scale and analyzed the geographical significance of Ladakh. At the same time, some erroneous views and geographical maps have been disseminated on the Internet at home and abroad, which urgently needs a comprehensive correction from the academic level. Based on a variety of historical documents, map data, and a detailed review of previous research results, this paper demonstrates the changes in place names, historical evolution, and regional scope of Ladakh from the 1st to the 21st century and analyzes its significance in the homeland security of western China. The results show that: (1) As the native land of China's Xizang Ladakh was part of the Tubo Dynasty until the 9th century. After the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty in the middle of the 9th century, Ladakh was an essential part of the Ngari local administration established by the descendants of the Tubo Royal family. In the 13th century, Ladakh was again united within the territory of China's Yuan Dynasty and continued through the Ming and Qing dynasties. It remained until the mid-19th century when the Prince-state of Jammu in southern Kashmir invaded it and incorporated it into the British Indian colony. It was then occupied by the Indian army in 1947. (2) Ladakh region has a tortuous history with many changes in place names. However, when Jammu annexed it in modern times, Ladakh only referred to the upper reaches of Indus Valley between the Western Himalayas and the Karakoram Mountains, with Leh as the center. (3) The complexity of the historical and geographical processes in the Ladakh region makes it the central area of conflicts created by India in the western section of the China-India border. Therefore, China should adopt active strategies to avoid India's continuous "assimilation" policy.

Key words: Ladakh, Ngari Prefecture, Kashmir, Tubo, Himalayas, Baltistan