地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (10): 2568-2584.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202110016

• 减贫与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

精准扶贫驱动贫困乡村重构的过程与机制——以十八洞村为例

丁建军(), 王璋, 余方薇, 柳艳红   

  1. 吉首大学商学院,吉首 416000
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-21 修回日期:2021-08-31 出版日期:2021-10-25 发布日期:2021-12-25
  • 作者简介:丁建军(1980-), 男, 湖南衡东人, 教授, 博导, 主要从事区域减贫与发展研究。E-mail: latt514@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761022);国家自然科学基金项目(42161033);湖南省杰出青年科学基金项目(2020JJ2025);湖南省社会科学基金重点项目(18ZDB031)

Targeted poverty alleviation drives the process and mechanism of rural reconstruction: A case study of Shibadong Village

DING Jianjun(), WANG Zhang, YU Fangwei, LIU Yanhong   

  1. Business School of Jishou University, Jishou 416000, Hunan, China
  • Received:2020-04-21 Revised:2021-08-31 Published:2021-10-25 Online:2021-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761022);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42161033);Science Foundation Project for Distinguished Youth of Hunan Province(2020JJ2025);Key Program of Social Science Foundation in Hunan Province(18ZDB031)

摘要:

精准扶贫方略作为“一揽子工程”,为贫困乡村带来了强烈的外部冲击,驱动贫困乡村的经济、社会和空间加速重构。在对精准扶贫驱动贫困乡村重构的内涵、特征及过程与机制进行理论解析的同时,以精准扶贫首倡地十八洞村的实践加以实证,发现:① 精准扶贫驱动贫困乡村重构是一个政府主导、多方参与,“自上而下”与“自下而上”有机结合的多维、全面、快速重构过程;② 在精准扶贫驱动贫困乡村重构过程中,行政势能、精英下沉、市场链接驱动,要素整合、动力激发、规划引导、能力培育、制度保障机制协同,推动贫困乡村由“低水平贫困均衡”走向“良性发展均衡”;③ 精准扶贫以来,十八洞村经历了经济系统从“二元经济”向“多元经济”转变;社会形态由纯粹的熟人社会向熟人逻辑与契约精神混合的半熟人社会转变;空间形态从生产、生活空间高度重合,但与生态空间隔离的两大传统农业区组团向生产、生活、生态空间有机融合的多元有序组团转变。十八洞村的实践为理解精准扶贫驱动贫困乡村重构的过程与机制提供了鲜活的样本,也是其“可复制可推广”经验最本质的体现。

关键词: 精准扶贫, 乡村重构, 过程与机制, 十八洞村

Abstract:

As a "package of projects", the targeted poverty alleviation strategy has accelerated economic, social and spatial reconstruction of rural areas. This paper aims to conduct a theoretical analysis of the connotation, characteristics, process, and mechanism of targeted poverty alleviation that drives poor rural reconstruction and provide empirical evidence of Shibadong Village, which is the first initiative of targeted poverty alleviation. It is found that targeted poverty alleviation is a process of multidimensional, comprehensive, and rapid reconstruction that is led by the government with multi-party participation in combination of "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches. The process of targeted poverty alleviation changes the poor rural areas from 'low-level poverty equilibrium' to 'healthy development equilibrium' through a combination of administrative power, sending elites to the village level, improving market accessibility, and coordination of factor integration, motivation, planning, training and institutional guarantee mechanisms. Since the implementation of the targeted poverty alleviation, Shibadong Village has transformed from a dualistic economy to a pluralist economy, from a pure acquaintance society to a semi-acquaintance society with a mixture of acquaintance logic and contract spirit, and from a spatial form highly overlapped from the production and living spaces, yet separated from the ecological space to a diverse and orderly cluster of organic integration of production, living and ecological space. The practice of Shibadong Village provides a fresh sample for us to understand the process and mechanism of the restructuring of poverty-stricken villages, and it is also an essential embodiment of its "reproducible and extendable" experience.

Key words: target poverty alleviation, rural reconstruction, process and mechanism, Shibadong Village