地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (11): 2401-2410.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911015

• 气候变化与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

社会—生态系统适应性治理研究进展与展望

宋爽1,王帅1(),傅伯杰1,陈海滨2,刘焱序1,赵文武1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    2. 西北农林科技大学经济管理学院,杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-23 修回日期:2019-07-19 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 王帅 E-mail:shuaiwang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:宋爽(1996-)男, 宁夏银川人, 博士生, 主要从事人地系统耦合研究。E-mail: songshgeo@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFA0604701);国家自然科学基金项目(41722102);国家自然科学基金项目(41761144064);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金

Study on adaptive governance of social-ecological system: Progress and prospect

SONG Shuang1,WANG Shuai1(),FU Bojie1,CHEN Haibin2,LIU Yanxu1,ZHAO Wenwu1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2018-10-23 Revised:2019-07-19 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-11-01
  • Contact: WANG Shuai E-mail:shuaiwang@bnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFA0604701);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41722102);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761144064);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

摘要:

社会—生态系统(SES)由社会子系统、生态子系统及两者的交互作用构成,具有不同于社会系统或生态系统单独具有的结构、功能和复杂特征。社会—生态系统适应性治理旨在通过适应性的社会权利分配与行为决策机制,使社会—生态系统能够在动态条件下可持续地保障人类福祉。适应性治理理论的形成受到“公共池塘资源管理”“韧性”和“治理”3方面理论的影响,并为“转型治理”与“协作治理”提供了建构基础。该理论具有以下3个主要目的:① 理解和应对社会—生态系统多稳态、非线性、不确定性、整体性以及复杂性;② 建立非对抗性的社会结构、权利分配制度以及行为决策体系,匹配社会子系统与自然子系统;③ 通过综合方法管理生态系统,使其可持续提供生态系统服务。因此,面对人类行为主导地表过程的“人类世”,实现适应性治理有助于应对社会—生态系统的复杂性与不确定性。鉴于中国的生态环境正处于迅速变化时期,且中国与世界各国间的相互影响日益复杂,未来研究可重点关注以下3个方面:① 理解耦合系统的多元互动过程,增强适应能力;② 强调社会—生态系统的整体性研究;③ 提高环境变化背景下理解和预测系统动态的能力。

关键词: 适应性治理, 社会—生态系统;, 自组织, 韧性管理, 可持续性

Abstract:

Social-Ecological System (SES) is composed of social subsystem, ecological subsystem and the interaction between them; its structure, functions, and characteristics are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Relying on adaptive social mechanisms of power-sharing and decision making, the adaptive governance of SES aims to guarantee human well-being in a sustainable manner under dynamic conditions. Adaptive governance theory is influenced by "common pool resources management", "resilience" and "governance", and lays a foundation for the construction of transformative governance and collaborative governance. This theory has three main objectives: (1) understanding and coping with the multi-stability, nonlinearity, uncertainty, integrity and complexity of SES; (2) establishing non-confrontational social structure, power-sharing structure and decision-making structure, and match with social subsystem and ecological subsystem; (3) achieving sustainable management of ecosystem services through an integrated approach. Therefore, in the face of the "Anthropocene" of human-behaviour-dominant surface processes, achieving adaptive governance helps to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of SES. Given the rapid changes in China's environment and the increasingly complicated interactions between China and countries all over the world, it will be helpful for future studies to pay close attention to the following fields: (1) understand the multi-interaction processes of a coupled system, and enhance its adaptability; (2) emphasize the significance of a holistic approach of studying SES; (3) improve the ability to understand and predict system dynamics in the context of environmental change.

Key words: adaptive governance, social-ecological system (SES), self-organization, resilience management, sustainability