地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (11): 2288-2302.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911007

• 山地水土要素时空耦合 • 上一篇    下一篇

典型山地降水径流时空演变及“水—热—人—地”匹配性分析

贾仰文,郝春沣,牛存稳,仇亚琴,杜军凯,徐飞,刘欢   

  1. 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京100038
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-14 修回日期:2019-10-09 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-11-01
  • 作者简介:贾仰文(1965-), 男, 山东成武人, 教授级高级工程师, 博导, 主要从事水循环研究。E-mail: jiayw@iwhr.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(973计划)(2015CB452701);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0404600);国家重点研发计划(2016 YFC0402405)

Spatio-temporal variations of precipitation and runoff and analyses of water-heat-human-land matching characteristics in typical mountainous areas of China

JIA Yangwen,HAO Chunfeng,NIU Cunwen,QIU Yaqin,DU Junkai,XU Fei,LIU Huan   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2019-05-14 Revised:2019-10-09 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-11-01
  • Supported by:
    National Key Basic Research Program of China(2015CB452701);National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFC0404600);National Key R&D Program of China(2016 YFC0402405)

摘要:

山地是中国自然生态保护与经济社会发展问题交织、矛盾突出的区域。山地水资源受气候变化和人类活动综合影响发生演变,进一步影响到其与区域气候资源、土地资源以及经济社会之间的协调匹配,研究这些问题对辨识山地发展关键短板、提供山地问题解决思路具有基础意义。根据自然环境特点和经济社会发展状况,选择太行山、横断山和黔桂喀斯特三大典型山地开展研究,基于全国水资源调查评价成果及土地利用、经济社会数据,采用Mann-Kendall检验等方法分析1956-2015年山地降水和径流时空演变特点;采用匹配距离和不平衡指数对山地的水(降水和径流)、热(积温和辐射)、地(面积和耕地)以及社会经济(人口和GDP)等4类要素匹配性进行综合对比分析。结果表明:三大典型山地中,太行山水资源禀赋最差,且2000年以来径流显著衰减,而横断山和黔桂喀斯特降水、径流丰富,且无明显变化趋势;从“水—热—人—地”对比来看,太行山以缺水问题为主,横断山多数地区土地与热资源偏少且水热空间差异大,黔桂喀斯特整体来说土地资源偏少;综合来看,水与其他要素的匹配性最差,特别是在太行山区,水的时空分布及其均衡匹配是保障山地可持续发展的关键。

关键词: 太行山, 横断山, 黔桂喀斯特山地, 不平衡指数, 水文学及水资源

Abstract:

Mountainous areas in China face complex problems due to conflicts between natural eco-environmental protection and socio-economic development. Mountain water resources have evolved in the context of climate change and human activities, which further affects their coordination and matching with regional climate resources, land resources and socio-economy. Hence, it is of fundamental significance for mountain development to study these issues to identify key weakness and provide solutions. The paper focuses on three typical mountainous areas under different natural geographic conditions and at socio-economic development levels in China, namely, Taihang Mountains Area (TMA), Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) and Guizhou-Guangxi Karst Area (GKA), and studies the spatio-temporal variations of precipitation and runoff from 1956 to 2015 by Mann-Kendall test based on national water resources assessment results and statistical data of land use and socio-economy. The characteristics of natural and socio-economic factors are analyzed by matching distance and imbalance index. In this process, four groups of parameters are selected, including water (precipitation and runoff), heat (accumulated temperature and radiation), land (total area and farmland area) and socio-economy (population and GDP). The results indicate that, the water resources endowment of TMA is the worst, and significant reduction of runoff since 2000 makes it even worse, while the precipitation and runoff of HMR and GKA are abundant and there is no obvious change trend. According to the analysis of regional water-heat-human-land matching characteristics, TMA mainly suffers from water shortage, land and heat resources have great disadvantages in most parts of HMR with uneven distribution of water and heat, and land resources are relatively deficient in all counties of GKA. In general, mismatching degree of water and other factors is the highest, and the allocation and coordination of water are the key issue for sustainable development of mountainous areas, especially in TMA.

Key words: Taihang Mountains Area, Hengduan Mountains Area, Guizhou-Guangxi Karst Area, imbalance index, hydrology and water resources