地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (6): 1063-1078.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906001

• 人地关系 •    下一篇

中国人地关系综合评价的理论模型与实证

杨宇1,2,李小云1,2,董雯3,洪辉4,何则1,2,金凤君1,2,刘毅1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院学部工作局,北京 100190
    4. 中国国际工程咨询有限公司,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-10 修回日期:2019-03-08 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-06-20
  • 作者简介:杨宇(1984-), 男, 山东威海人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事能源地理与区域发展研究。E-mail: yangyu@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41430636);国家自然科学基金项目(41571159);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-314)

Comprehensive evaluation on China's man-land relationship: Theoretical model and empirical study

YANG Yu1,2,LI Xiaoyun1,2,DONG Wen3,HONG Hui4,HE Ze1,2,JIN Fengjun1,2,LIU Yi1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    4. China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2018-05-10 Revised:2019-03-08 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-06-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41430636);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571159);Key Programs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(KFZD-SW-314)

摘要:

人地关系是地理学研究的经典问题,也是中国人文—经济地理学在国际地理学研究中具有突出贡献的命题。人地关系在动态演变过程中不断出现新的时代内涵,如何科学表征中国现代人地关系的状态,是精准认知现代人地关系进而寻求协调人地矛盾路径的基础。基于人地关系地域系统理论,在梳理中国现代人地关系时代特征的基础上,构建人地关系综合评价的理论框架,从人类活动的施压强度、核心资源要素的承压能力、生态环境系统的约束力度以及人—地系统的开放程度4个层面选取表征指标,秉承分级评价、逐级修正的思想,以县级单元为基础对全国层面的人地关系状态进行综合评价。结果发现:中国的人类活动强度具有明显的东西分异性及依托核心城市群布局的特征,而核心资源要素的综合支撑能力空间布局较为分散,且土地、水、核心能矿资源以及人类活动强度四者之间的空间错配度较高,在一定程度上增加了区域人地关系的紧张状态。生态环境系统的约束紧密区多集中在胡焕庸线两侧及青藏高原西南部,全国层面上人—地系统的开放程度不高,开放程度较高的区域主要集中在中国经济发达地区。综合评价结果显示,全国大约85.56%的区域人地关系状态以宽松为主,但是局部地区尤其是东南沿海地区人地矛盾突出,西部地区人地关系相对宽松,但人地系统演进的等级也相对较低。

关键词: 人地关系, 综合评价, 理论模型, 人类活动压力, 资源承载能力, 生态约束, 系统开放度, 中国

Abstract:

Relationship is a classic concern of geographical research, which is also a research field where China's human and economic geography has made notable contributions to international geographical research. The connotation of man-land relationship changes constantly during its dynamic evolution process. Therefore, a scientific evaluation on the status of modern man-land relationship in China is the basis for an accurate understanding of it with which paths of coordinating conflicts between man and land can be sought. Based on the territorial system theory of man-land relationship and a review of the new characteristics of modern man-land relationship in China, this study constructs a theoretical framework to make a comprehensive evaluation on man-land relations using the following four indicators: intensity of human activities, carrying capacity of core resources, ecological and environmental constraints, and openness of man-land system. Counties are taken as the basic spatial units in the evaluation. The following results are found: there are apparent differences between eastern and western China in terms of intensity of human activities and the distribution pattern of it follows the layout of core urban agglomerations; the carrying capacities of core resources take on a relatively dispersed spatial distribution; there is a high level of spatial mismatch between land, water, core energy resources, and the intensity of human activities, which intensifies the tension of regional man-land relationship; areas with strong ecological and environmental constrains are concentrated on both sides of the Heihe-Tengchong Line (also known as the Hu Huanyong Line) and in the southwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; overall, the level of openness of China's man-land system is not high, with relatively open areas mainly concentrated in economically developed regions. The evaluation results show that about 86% of the regions in China are faced an unstrained man-land relationship, but noticeable man-land conflicts are found in some areas, particularly in southeastern coastal areas. In the western region of China, man-land relationship is relatively unstrained though the level of man-land system evolution is low.

Key words: man-land relationship, comprehensive evaluation, theoretical model, intensity of human activities, carrying capacity of resources, ecological constraints, system openness, China