地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (6): 1049-1064.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806005

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国工业基地的甄别与演化模式

金凤君1,2(),陈琳琳1,2,3,杨宇1,2,洪辉4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国人民大学附属中学通州校区,北京 1011173
    4. 中国国际工程咨询有限公司,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-19 出版日期:2018-06-10 发布日期:2018-06-04
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-314);中国科学院先导A项目(XDA19040403)

The classification and growth pattern of industrial bases in China

JIN Fengjun1,2(),CHEN Linlin1,2,3,YANG Yu1,2,HONG Hui4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. The High School Affiliated to the Renmin University of China, Tongzhou Campus, Beijing 101117, China
    4. China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2017-08-19 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-04
  • Supported by:
    The Key Development Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KFZD-SW-314;The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.XDA19040403

摘要:

中国工业化的快速进程在空间上表现为一系列工业基地的形成和演化。本文采用1985年、2001年和2010年数据,对中国工业基地进行识别、筛选和类型划分,并分析其空间格局演进过程与特征,探讨不同规模与不同类型工业基地成长的路径,总结其形成与演化的一般模式。研究发现:1949年以来中国工业基地在空间上整体经历了1978年改革开放前分散化发展、改革开放初期逐步向东部沿海地区集聚、21世纪均衡多元化发展3个阶段。至2010年,中国共有251个工业基地,奠定了其工业化的空间总图。随着工业基地产业规模扩大,其产业结构先由单一化向多元化发展,再由多元化向优势产业组合调整;多数工业基地的主导产业沿着轻工业、基础原材料工业和先进制造业的轨迹不断演进,其发展与演化的关键因素由自然资源、劳动力等传统生产要素向资本、信息等新因素过渡,但大、中、小型工业基地成长的路径和影响因素具有显著差异。小型工业基地主要依靠自然资源保持单行业主导的发展路径;中型工业基地产业组合逐步综合化;大型工业基地向基础原材料工业和设备制造业组合发展的方向演进。

关键词: 工业基地, 识别, 演化, 模式, 中国

Abstract:

The rapid process of China's industrialization is manifested in space as the formation and evolution of a series of industrial bases. The paper identifies and selects different industrial bases in China in 1985, 2001 and 2010. It then examines the evolution of these industrial bases and explores their evolution paths according to their scales or types, as well as summarizes the general pattern of its formation and evolution. The results indicate that the development of Chinese industrial bases have undergone four stages since the founding of the country: decentralization before the implementation of the reform and opening up policy; gradual gathering to the coastal areas in the early period of reform and opening up; balanced development from north to south since the beginning of the 21st century. Generally, industrial structure evolved from single to diversified development, combined the advantageous industries; the dominant sectors of industrial cities evolve from the light industry, basic raw material industry, to advanced manufacturing industries. Moreover, the essential factors of production are necessary, and the key factors are transformed from traditional production factors such as natural resources and labor forces, to new factors such as capital and information, with the expansion of industrial bases. The growth path and the impact factors for industrial bases of different sizes are different. The growth of small-sized bases maintains a single industry relied on natural resources; medium-sized bases tend to be sector integrated; the large bases are developing in industires of basic raw materials and equipment manufacturing.

Key words: industrial base, identification, evolution path, transition, China

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