地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (6): 1018-1032.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806003

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

西安市贫困空间结构特征与发生机理

马蓓蓓1,2(),李海玲1,2,魏也华3,薛东前1,2(),江军1,2   

  1. 1. 陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
    2. 地理国家级实验教学示范中心(陕西师范大学),西安 710119
    3. 犹他大学地理系及公共与国际事务研究院,美国 盐湖城 84112-9115
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-06 出版日期:2018-06-10 发布日期:2018-06-04
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171142, 41371132, 41329001);陕西省软科学研究计划项目(2015KRM147)

Spatial structure and mechanism of urban poverty in Xi'an city

MA Beibei1,2(),LI Hailing1,2,Yehua Dennis WEI3,XUE Dongqian1,2(),JIANG Jun1,2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
    2. National Demonstration Center for Experimental Geography Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
    3. Department of Geography and Institute of Public and International Affairs, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9155, USA
  • Received:2017-07-06 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-04
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171142, No.41371132, No.41329001;Soft Science Research Program of Shaanxi Province, No.2015KRM147

摘要:

以中国西部综合型大城市、老工业基地西安市为例,基于大规模调研数据,采用相对贫困概念和FGT指数研究城市内部微观单元贫困特征的空间分异与形成机理。结果表明,西安市整体的贫困状况较为缓和,贫困覆盖面广,但深度和强度较弱;随着城市圈层扩展,贫困属性呈现出“U”型演化曲线,表现出“高贫困、破碎、混杂—低贫困或非贫困、弱连续、较弱混杂—较低贫困、连续、内部分化、相对均一—较高贫困、相对连续、较强混杂”的演化规律,成熟建成区和新兴扩展区内侧分化区的贫困状况最弱;城市内部已基本发育成熟了旧城衰退型、发展剥夺型、传统工业衰退型、“城中村”型和新增长中心邻近型等5种表征不同贫困主体及户籍、住房等特征的贫困极核。西安城市贫困空间的结构特征是其社会经济发展的阶段性和区域性的集中体现,是在城市宏观社会经济和整体地域结构背景下,各收入阶层在生活成本、就业机会、公共资源、政策导向和社会心理亚文化圈等因素的作用下,通过接替、过滤、自主集聚、排斥隔离和强化等机制重塑城市社会空间的综合表现。

关键词: 城市贫困, 相对贫困, 空间结构, 机理, 西安市

Abstract:

Urban poverty in western China, where poverty is largely concentrated and distinctively different from eastern China, is a relatively less studied but noteworthy research field in China's urban poverty in the transition period. This paper analyzes spatial structure and mechanism of urban poverty in western China, through a case study of Xi'an city, an ancient capital and a traditional industrial base. The data comes from a survey of urban residents' income in main urban areas of Xi'an in 2015. The definition of relative poverty used by the World Bank and the method of FGT index are adopted to evaluate the attributes of urban poverty at the scale of sub-districts. The results show that the average poverty incidence in Xi'an is relatively high, but poverty depth and intensity are weak. Urban poverty presents U-shaped curves from the city center towards suburban areas, along with the variations of spatial heterogeneity and continuity. The inner differentiated fringe of rising extension zone and mature built-up zone are the weakest urban poverty areas. We can identify five types of areas with high poverty rates: declining old inner city areas, deprived development areas, declining traditional industrial areas, urban villages and areas near new growth poles, where people in poverty exhibit different demographic and housing characteristics. The spatial structure of urban poverty in Xi'an reflects the city's stage of socioeconomic development and regional characteristics, which having directly effects on the city's employment capacity and residents' income level. There are multiple forces shaping the spatial structure of urban poverty in Xi'an, ranging from public policy, industrial legacy, tourism and residential choices. During the process of economic transition, urban residents of different income groups are remaking the structure of urban social space of Xi'an through diversified paths, including replacing, filtering, spontaneous agglomeration, segregation, exclusion and reinforce. These findings help us to have a better understanding of the development mechanism underlying urban poverty in less developed inland cities in western China, and provide scientific basis to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of anti-poverty policies in China.

Key words: urban poverty, relative poverty, spatial structure, mechanism, Xi'an city