地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (11): 1699-1707.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201511001

• •    下一篇

中国南方湿润区红层荒漠化问题

彭华(), 闫罗彬, 陈智, ScottSIMONSON, 罗谷松   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-31 修回日期:2015-09-12 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-11-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:彭华(1956-), 男, 安徽砀山人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员 (S110001362M), 主要研究方向为丹霞地貌、旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail:eesph@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171013);国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2013FY111900)

A preliminary study of desertification in red beds in the humid region of Southern China

Hua PENG(), Luobin YAN, Zhi CHEN, SIMONSON Scott, Gusong LUO   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2015-07-31 Revised:2015-09-12 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-11-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171013;The Special Program for Key Basic Research of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, No.2013FY111900

摘要:

通过回顾国内外荒漠化概念的演变和国内对荒漠化问题的研究,认为发生在湿润区和半湿润区的极端土地退化也是一种特殊的荒漠化。中国南方湿润区的红层分布区由于岩性的特殊性,在人类的不合理开发利用影响下,产生了一种特殊的土地退化现象,暂称之为红层荒漠化。作为对该问题研究的初步成果,本文提出了红层荒漠和红层荒漠化的概念,重点阐述了红层软岩区荒漠化的地貌特征、生态特征和土壤特征。然后以南雄盆地为例,分析了劣地式红层荒漠的分布特征及盆地尺度的荒漠化格局,认为红层荒漠最初以点状揭露的方式形成,然后发展为呈斑块状分布;劣地式荒漠化基本都发生在盆地中部由软岩构成的缓丘和岗地区域。在面上调查和案例地深入研究的基础上,从岩石特性、自然影响和人为干扰等方面探讨了劣地式红层荒漠化的形成机理,劣地式红层荒漠化过程的诱发因素较复杂,主要是人为影响,可概括为:粗放开垦、林地过火、旱地退化、人为取表土以及村庄内的多因素干扰。红层暴露后在自然力和人为作用下都可能发生荒漠区扩展。

关键词: 湿润区, 红层软岩, 红层荒漠, 荒漠化, 南雄盆地

Abstract:

The development of domestic and foreign concepts, and previous research of desertification are reviewed in this paper. We conclude that extreme land degradation in sub-humid and humid regions should be classified as desertification. Due to the lithology of the soft redbed rocks, along with excessive resource exploitation by humans and the humid climate, a special kind of desertification occurred in redbed regions in Southern China. As preliminary research concerning redbed desertification, we put forward the concepts of redbed deserts and redbed desertification. We also elaborate on features of desertification developing in redbed regions, such as landform features, ecological features, and soil features. Then, utilizing Nanxiong Basin as a case study, the spatial patterns of redbed desertification and the patterns of desertification at the basin scale are analyzed. The process of redbed desertification begins as spotty uncovering, and then develops into patches. Redbed desertification has mostly occurred on hills formed of soft rock in the central part of the basin. Based on the field work, the mechanism of redbed desertification is discussed from the aspects of lithological features, natural impacts, and human activities. The triggers of redbed badland desertification are complex, but are mainly impacted by activities such as severe reclamation, forest fires, tree planting disturbances, dry-land degradation, acquirement of topsoil, and so on. Once red beds are exposed, the extension of the desert region can be caused by both nature and human activities.

Key words: humid region, redbed soft rock, redbed desert, desertification, Nanxiong Basin