地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (8): 1296-1312.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201508009

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中国城市居民的家庭代际分/合居行为及其影响要素——以成都市为例

王梅梅1(), 杨永春1(), 谭一洺2, 刘润1   

  1. 1. 兰州大学资源环境学院 西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-24 修回日期:2015-04-06 出版日期:2015-08-20 发布日期:2015-09-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王梅梅(1988-), 女, 博士, 主要研究方向为城市发展、转型与规划。E-mail: wmm035@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171143);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金自由探索项目(lzujbky-2015-221)

Behavior and factors influencing intergenerational household cohabitation/separation among urban Chinese citizens: A case study from Chengdu

Meimei WANG1(), Yongchun YANG1(), Yiming TAN2, Run LIU1   

  1. 1. School of Resource and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2014-12-24 Revised:2015-04-06 Online:2015-08-20 Published:2015-09-24
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171143;The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, No.lzujbky-2015-221

摘要:

1978年以来,中国家庭小型化趋向非常显著,尤以代际分居为核心诱因,代际分居对转型期中国的社会稳定、家庭和睦乃至住房市场都构成了很大的影响。而且,中国的代际分居现象及其机制和西方社会存在根本的不同,此文讨论了转型期基于代际分居率和家庭生命周期的中国城市居民分/合居行为的概念模型,随后选择成都市主城区进行了实证,因为该地区不但社会经济发展速度快,户籍居民的老龄化趋向明显,而且兼受中国传统文化和西方文化的耦合影响。与西方发达社会基于家庭生命周期先合居、后分居的规律不同,中国城市居民家庭居住行为呈现出合居—(小)分居—合居—分居—(小)合居—(小)分居—(小)合居的变化过程。采用2012-2013年的实地调研数据,采用Pearson相关性分析法提取主要影响因素,后采用二元logistic 回归方法研究了主要因素对居民分/合居行为的显著性和正负影响,并对不同年龄段的城市居民家庭代际分/合居行为的代际分/合居选择及其影响因素进行了分析。结论如下:① 文化程度、配偶健在、家庭人均收入、父母应帮子女成家、父母应帮子女买房、与子女/父母代际分居意愿、作息习惯、饮食习惯、安静/热闹偏好、卫生习惯、居家习惯和私密空间习惯与家庭代际分居率正向显著;② 年龄、家庭居住面积、父母应帮忙抚养孙辈、(子女)应该养老、父母/子女应临近居住、养儿防老、养育习惯等变量与家庭代际分居率负向显著;③ 不同年龄段居民的代际分/合居选择的影响因素及其显著度有所差异。

关键词: 家庭分/合居, 成都市, 代际分居率, 中国, 成都

Abstract:

The miniaturization of families, primarily caused by intergenerational household separation, commenced after the initiation of the reform and opening up of China. This was expected to greatly influence family harmony, social stability, and the housing market. Moreover, there are fundamental differences in Chinese and Western societal behaviors and mechanisms of intergenerational household separation. In light of these issues, here we develop a conceptual model of intergenerational household cohabitation/separation of urban Chinese citizens. The main zone of Chengdu was selected for our empirical study because of its rapid economic growth, aging citizens, and the effects of potentially conflicting values of traditional Chinese and Western cultures. We found that the residential choices of Chinese urban families exhibited the following tendencies: (1) cohabitation followed by separation (an increasing ratio of intergenerational separation, but at a low rate of increase); (2) cohabitation followed by separation, and subsequently by cohabitation (an increasing ratio of intergenerational cohabitation, but at a low rate of increase); (3) final separation (an increasing ratio of intergenerational separation, but at a low rate of increase); and (4) cohabitation (an increasing ratio of intergenerational cohabitation, but at a low rate of increase). Pearson correlation was applied to select the main factors influencing residence. Significant values and impact directions were determined using binary logistic regression. Choices and variables of intergenerational household cohabitation/separation within different age groups were also analyzed. The results showed that intergenerational household residential choices positively depended on several factors, including educational level, living spouses, household income per capita, an inclination to separate, routines, eating habits, health habits, spending habits, and private space requirements. Factors that negatively influenced intergenerational household cohabitation/separation included age, current/previous professions, parents and their children living in close proximity, children available to support the elderly, and habits of parental care. Differences in the variables affected household intergenerational cohabitation/separation among different age groups.

Key words: household intergenerational cohabitation/separation, Chengdu, ratio of intergenerational separation, China, Chengdu