地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (8): 1281-1295.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201508008

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现代性语境下地方性与身份认同的建构——以拉萨“藏漂”群体为例

钱俊希1(), 杨槿2,3, 朱竑1()   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院 文化产业与文化地理研究中心,广州 510631
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-07 修回日期:2015-02-03 出版日期:2015-08-20 发布日期:2015-09-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:钱俊希(1987-), 男, 江苏扬州人, 博士, 副教授, 主要研究方向为社会文化地理、文化政治与社会理论。E-mail: junxi.qian@gmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171125, 41401139)

The construction of placeness and identity in the context ofChina's emerging modernity: A case study of Han Chinese "drifters" in Lhasa, Tibet

Junxi QIAN1(), Jing YANG2,3, Hong ZHU1()   

  1. 1. School of Geography & Centre for Cultural Industry and Cultural Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-08-07 Revised:2015-02-03 Online:2015-08-20 Published:2015-09-24
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171125, No.41401139

摘要:

现代性体验是后改革时代中国社会转型过程的一个重要维度。现代性以工具理性与社会进步作为终极价值取向,强调以理性的方式规划和管理社会生活的各个方面,以期实现持续的增长、稳定的发展以及财富积累。然而,现代化过程在赋予人类更大自由的同时,也带来了新的束缚与压抑。在这一背景下,越来越多的人选择逃离现代性的束缚,在那些似乎存在于现代性过程之外的、“落后”的地方重新寻找原真性的生存体验。在这一理论背景下,本文以长期留居在西藏拉萨的汉族“藏漂”群体为对象,探讨在中国后改革时代社会转型的背景下,社会成员如何实现对现代性的“逃离”。“藏漂”群体的身份认同,其本质是对西藏的地方性的建构。这一过程包含两个维度,即对西藏的地方性的想象与表征,以及在日常生活的层面对想象的地方性的践行与体验。一方面,“藏漂”通过一系列的表征与话语,将西藏想象为一个与内地在社会文化秩序上截然不同的地方。另一方面,日常生活中的社会与空间实践,体现了“藏漂”群体对想象的地方性的践行与展演,对文化身份同样起到重要的正反馈作用。研究认为:“藏漂”对现代性的体验,反映了现代社会内在的矛盾,而“藏漂”对地方性的建构与体验,对理解“他者”与“我者”之间复杂的社会与文化关系,提供了一个新的视角。

关键词: 现代性, 地方性, 认同, “藏漂”, 拉萨

Abstract:

The Chinese society is currently experiencing a radical transition to modernity. Although the Chinese modernity is not simply a duplicate of what originally rose from the Western context, Chinese people's experiences of modernity are in many ways comparable to their western counterparts. The term modernity signifies a historical period in which reason and scientific rationality become the fundamental ideologies to orient social activities and everyday behaviours. It is characterized by a teleology which advocates endless progress and growth. However, although modernity endows social members with greater freedom to pursue personal advancement, it also leads to negative experiences, especially the loss of stable and authentic social life. Against this the background of post-reform social transformation, particular sections of the Chinese society have embarked on an endless search of places which seems to be "uncontaminated" by modernization. This paper narrates one of these stories. It investigates Han Chinese "drifters" who dwell in Lhasa, and Tibet in order to enact anti-modernist identities. In particular, this paper provides an account of the ways in which the "drifters" in Lhasa imagine, constructs and consumes the placeness and place identity of Tibet. It argues that the question of modernity has an inherently spatial dimension. The construction of the drifters' identity is contingent upon the place identity of Tibet, which itself is a social and lived construction. The drifters' construction of place identity involves two dimensions, namely the representation and imagination of Tibet's place identity, and the lived practices of the imagined place identity of Tibet. On the one hand, this paper suggests that Han-Tibetan cultural difference is discursively constructed and spotlighted via the imagination of the place identity of Tibet. These representations are not objective descriptions of absolute realities, but socially constructed discourses that contribute to identity formation. On the other hand, this article analyzes the ways in which the imagined Tibetanness is lived via mundane practices of everyday life, and argues that these practices contribute positively to the formation of the drifters' identity.

Key words: modernity, placeness, identity, "drifters" in Tibet, Lhasa