地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (8): 1271-1280.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201508007

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北京郊区居民日常生活方式的行为测度与空间—行为互动

塔娜1(), 柴彦威1(), 关美宝2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 美国伊利诺州大学厄巴纳—香槟分校地理及地理信息科学系,香槟 61820
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-11 修回日期:2015-01-08 出版日期:2015-08-20 发布日期:2015-09-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:塔娜(1986-), 女, 内蒙古包头人, 博士, 主要研究方向为城市社会地理学与行为地理学。E-mail: tanapku@gmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41228001) [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41228001]

Suburbanization, daily lifestyle and space-behavior interaction in Beijing

Tana1(), Yanwei CHAI1(), Mei-Po KWAN2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
  • Received:2014-10-11 Revised:2015-01-08 Online:2015-08-20 Published:2015-09-24

摘要:

郊区化及其对居民日常生活的影响成为近年来城市研究的重要议题。时空行为研究认为推动日常生活方式的郊区化是解决郊区化过程中出现的社会与空间问题的根本措施。从日常生活方式的角度出发,需要利用多维度时空行为指标刻画群体的生活方式类型以分析郊区居民的空间—行为互动机制。本文采用活动空间和出行频率指标构建个体日常生活方式的行为测度方法,并基于2012年在北京上地—清河地区进行的GPS调查数据将郊区居民划分为“空间排斥”、“本地化”、“郊区性”、“两极化”、“城市依赖”五种日常生活方式类型。研究发现不同日常生活方式群体在活动分布、活动频率和交通方式上存在差异;并通过多项logistic模型分析郊区化对于个体日常生活方式的影响,发现工作日居民的日常生活方式受到性别、收入、年龄和工作时长等社会经济属性的影响。同时郊区设施配置直接影响着居民对郊区空间的利用程度,土地混合利用、商业设施密度提高更有可能实现日常生活的郊区化。日常生活方式的行为测度方法有助于分析郊区居民日常行为的复杂性,为理解郊区化提供了独特的视角,为构建城市研究的空间—行为互动理论提供了有力的支持。

关键词: 郊区化, 日常生活方式, 活动空间, 空间—行为互动, 北京

Abstract:

Rapid suburbanization in China is dramatically reshaping the daily life of suburban residents. Characterized by fragmentation, increasing car ownership and job-housing separation, suburbanization is changing the way residents use urban space. In China, long-distance commuting, traffic congestion, spatial mismatch and the low quality of life emerging in the progress of residential suburbanization have caused widespread concerns. Suburbanization of residents' daily life is believed to be a solution to the socio-spatial issues in suburbs. Therefore, scholars have argued that there is an urgent need to introduce behavioral perspectives to the study of suburbanization. This approach will enhance our understanding of the process and the mechanism of suburbanization from the perspective of an individual’s daily life. The important step in this study is to portray the nature of the daily lifestyle in the suburbs. Along with the trend toward behavioral perspectives in human geography, space-time behavior has become an important perspective for the study of urban space. Activity space and travel behavior often serve as important indicators of individual behavior in urban and geographic studies. This study focuses on daily activity-travel behavior, introduces the concept of lifestyle, and brings forward a concept of daily lifestyle based on a combined measure of activity space and trip frequency. The daily lifestyle of suburban residents can be classified into five categories: localization, spatial exclusion, suburbanism, polarization, and city dependence, according to the size of the activity space and the trip frequency. Based on a GPS-facilitated activity-travel survey dataset collected in the Shangdi-Qinghe area in Beijing in 2012, this paper compares the differences in activity-travel behavior among five daily lifestyle groups. The study finds that there are intergroup differences in the spatial distribution of activities, activity participation and modal split among these five lifestyle groups. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the impact of suburbanization on daily lifestyle by examining the relationship between daily lifestyle and built environment while controlling socio-demographic factors using a multinomial logistic model. Women and older people are more likely to be in the categories of localization and spatial exclusion. Low-income people have the higher possibility to be spatially excluded. These outcomes indicate that traditionally disadvantaged groups could be trapped in suburban areas, raising definite concerns for their daily life in suburban areas. Factors associated with the built environment primarily impact the localization lifestyle. Mixed land use in danwei and higher retail density contribute to the concentration of activity space in suburbs, as well as more active travel. The concept of daily lifestyle provides an effective and reasonable way to understand complicated activity-travel behavior of suburban residents. The paper offers a special perspective on understanding suburbanization and the interaction between urban space and individual behavior.

Key words: suburbanization, daily lifestyle, activity space, space-behavior interaction, Beijing