地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (6): 771-781.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201406005

• 交通与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市居民汽车使用的特征及其影响因素

王丰龙, 王冬根   

  1. 香港浸会大学地理系, 香港九龙塘
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-12 修回日期:2014-03-18 出版日期:2014-06-20 发布日期:2014-06-20
  • 作者简介:王丰龙(1988-),男,内蒙古赤峰市人,博士生,主要从事主观幸福感、城市地理和计量地理研究。E-mail:wfldragon@yahoo.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371181);香港研究资助局优配研究金项目(HKBU247813)

Characteristics and determinants of car use in Beijing

WANG Fenglong, WANG Donggen   

  1. Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
  • Received:2013-09-12 Revised:2014-03-18 Published:2014-06-20 Online:2014-06-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371181; Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, No.HKBU247813

摘要: 目前,中国城市私人汽车的拥有量高速增长,小汽车不仅日益成为居民日常出行的重要交通方式,更深刻影响着城市的空间结构和道路的拥堵状况。然而,目前国内对汽车使用的研究仍十分匮乏。为此,本文试图基于2011 年11 月到2012 年7 月在北京进行的一项问卷调查数据,分析家庭汽车使用行为的特征、强度及影响因素。描述性统计和(定序Logistic) 回归分析结果显示,汽车使用目的、建成环境和各种家庭/个人社会经济特征对大城市居民的汽车使用强度和依赖度有重要影响。其中,通勤是居民日常使用汽车的主要目的;公共交通条件较差和停车条件便利是促使居民大量使用汽车的重要原因;婚姻状态、工作状态、家庭规模和家庭内持有驾照的成员数等对居民的日常汽车使用也有重要影响;周末与工作日的汽车使用频次或时长没有显著差异。这些发现对道路交通规划和交通政策的制定有重要参考意义。不过,要想更有效地控制汽车使用行为,未来的研究仍有必要增强对因果关系、出行的限制条件和影响交通行为的心理机制等问题的考察。

关键词: 汽车使用强度, 汽车依赖度, 建成环境, 车辆行驶里程, 北京

Abstract: The increased private car ownership in China especially large cities has facilitated trip making and activity engagement behavior of citizens, but also led to many urban problems including traffic congestion and air pollution. While car ownership control has received much attention from academics and policy makers, not much research on private car usage in Chinese cities has been conducted. To fill in this gap, this paper examines the patterns and determinants of private car use in Beijing. Data are derived from an activitytravel behavior survey conducted in Beijing from November 2011 to July 2012. We develop econometric models from the data and find that the intensity of car usage in Beijing is significantly influenced by the purpose of car use, built environment variables and personal and household socioeconomic characteristics. Specifically, commuting is the most important purpose for car use in Beijing and the share of car use for this purpose is much higher than for other purposes; poor public transportation service and convenient parking facilities are two major driving forces of car use in Beijing; individual and household socioeconomic characteristics, such as marriage status, employment, household size and age, also play an important role. There is not much difference in frequency and duration of car usage between weekdays and weekends. These findings have important implications for transportation policymaking. Policies aiming at controlling car use may need to act on the factors that are found here as significant determinants of car use (e.g., built environment variables). It is argued that more studies on car use are required to better understand patterns and determinants of car use in Chinese cities and inform policies that can effectively reduce car use and alleviate car dependency.

Key words: intensity of car use, vehicle miles traveled, built environment, Beijing, car dependency