地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (6): 747-758.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201406003

• 人口与城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海都市区就业—人口空间结构演化特征

孙斌栋1,2, 魏旭红1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心, 上海200062;
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院, 上海200241
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-29 修回日期:2014-01-09 出版日期:2014-06-20 发布日期:2014-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 魏旭红(1989-),女,吉林长春人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为城市空间结构。E-mail:xhwei0925@gmail.com E-mail:xhwei0925@gmail.com
  • 作者简介:孙斌栋(1970-),男,河北人,博士,教授,博导,中国地理学会会员(S110006693M),主要研究方向为城市地理、城市规划和区域经济。E-mail:bdsun@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40971103);教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(11JZD028);教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目(11JJDZH004)

Spatial distribution and structure evolution of employment and population in Shanghai Metropolitan Area

SUN Bindong1,2, WEI Xuhong1,2   

  1. 1. Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China;
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2013-09-29 Revised:2014-01-09 Online:2014-06-20 Published:2014-07-30
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971103; The Key Project of Social Science by China Ministry of Education No.11JZD028; The Key Research Project in Social and Humanity by Ministry of Education of China, No.11JJDZH004

摘要: 研究以非参数模型计量为基础,从集聚—分散维度和单中心—多中心维度刻画了上海都市区就业、人口空间演化特征,并与北京都市区的研究结果进行了横向比较。研究表明,上海都市区的就业和人口不断向外扩散,同时近、远郊均出现了稳定的再集中,就业和人口的空间多中心性都在增强。而北京只存在人口的分散化和多中心化,就业却呈现集中化和单中心化的态势。因而,上海都市区的就业—人口空间匹配程度高于北京。产业结构差异是造成北京、上海两地就业空间演化特征分异的原因之一,上海制造业比重高于北京,郊区的制造业集聚强化了近、远郊吸纳就业能力,促进了多中心空间结构的形成。北京和上海中心城区的就业、人口规模仍在扩张,导致近邻地区被包络在内,原有的次中心逐渐消失,因而,科学确定中心城区的增长边界,有效防止邻近蔓延,应当成为特大城市未来发展的关注重点。

关键词: 就业与人口空间分布, 城市空间结构, 多中心, 分散, 上海都市区

Abstract: The paper aims to generalize the characteristics and evolution of spatial structure in Shanghai Metropolitan Area, and also to compare the basic results with those of Beijing Metropolitan Area. To demonstrate the spatial evolution of both employment and population distribution in Shanghai, we have applied nonparametric methods to the analysis, which contains two perspectives of ‘agglomeration-dispersion’ and ‘monocentricity-polycentricity’. Our study has concluded that there is a continuous and evident dispersion in both population and employment distribution since the 1990s, and our study has identified the significant concentrated sub-centers in peripheral areas, which strengthened the polycentricity of the metropolitan area. As for Beijing, the overall trend of population evolution tends to be dispersed and polycentric, but the spatial distribution of employment is generally concentrated in central areas, which is contrary to the decentralization of population. According to our comparative analysis, the employment and population spatial distributions match better in Shanghai. We have also discussed about the reasons for different phenomena in Shanghai and Beijing. Differences of industrial structure between Beijing and Shanghai may be one of the most important causes for the employment distribution disparity, owing to the fact that Shanghai's manufacturing share is higher than Beijing's and the industrial dispersion helps promote the ability of absorbing employment in suburban areas and form the polycentric urban spatial structure. As for Beijing, service industry plays a significant role in recent years. Service industry often requires face-to-face communication, as a result, enterprises tend to form an agglomeration and reinforce the centralization, leading to a much more monocentric urban spatial structure. Meanwhile, in both Beijing and Shanghai, the population and employment sizes in central districts still matter a lot, which has already made some employment sub-centers not significant. Therefore, it is necessary for megacities to restrict the growth boundaries in central districts, so as to prevent inefficient spatial extension. Also, it is worthwhile to reinforce the agglomeration economies of sub-centers in peripheral areas to relieve the crowded effect in central areas.

Key words: patial distribution of employment and population, polycentricity, Shanghai Metropolitan Area, urban spatial structure, dispersion