地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (12): 1599-1610.doi: 10.11821/xb201212002

• 国土开发与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国生态环境质量变化态势及其空间分异分析

孙东琪1, 张京祥2, 朱传耿3, 胡毅1, 周亮1   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210093;
    2. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院, 南京 210093;
    3. 江苏师范大学城市与环境学院, 徐州 221116
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-20 修回日期:2012-09-26 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2012-12-20
  • 作者简介:孙东琪(1985-),男,山东单县人,博士研究生,中国地理学会会员(S110009101M),主要研究方向为城市规划与区域经济,人口与生态环境。E-mail:aibidsk@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (41171134;40901082);国家社会科学基金特别委托项目 (2007@ZH005);国家软科学重大项目 (2700ZXQ4D166)

An Assessment of China’s Ecological Environment Quality Change and Its Spatial Variation

SUN Dongqi1, ZHANG Jingxiang2, ZHU Chuangeng3, HU Yi1, ZHOU Liang1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    3. Collage of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2012-04-20 Revised:2012-09-26 Published:2012-12-20 Online:2012-12-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171134;No.40901082;National Social Science Funds Special Commission Project of China, No.2007@ZH005;Key Project of National Soft Science of China, No.2700ZXQ4D166

摘要: 在搜集整理1990、1995、2000、2005、2010年5个时间点的相关多种数据的基础上, 利用层次分析法,借助Excel、SPSS19.0、ArcGIS10.0技术,对中国及其31个省市区、三大经 济带的生态环境质量进行综合评价,分析了其生态环境的变化态势,计算了中国生态环境质 量重心的变化轨迹。研究表明: ① 1990-2010 年 20 年间中国生态环境恶化态势有所减缓,但 依然很严重。 ② 总的来看,自1990年至今,中国生态环境总体恶化,局部改善,治理小于破 坏,生态赤字依然在扩大的态势没有得到真正改变,还要持续一定的时间。 ③ 中国自西向东 生态环境质量越来越好,生态环境质量恶化速度逐渐变缓。这种状况的出现,除了先天的自 然环境基础外,自西向东区域经济、科技、文化越来越发达,生态环境治理投入的人力、物 力、财力、技术力度越来越大起到了关键作用。 ④ 多年来粗放型的经济发展使中国人口、经 济、社会与生态环境之间的关系严重失调,其31个省市区也是如此。因此,控制人口,改善 环境,集约精细化发展,进行人口、经济、社会—生态环境调控势在必行,各级政府应当高 度重视、深入研究、详细论证、科学实施。

关键词: 中国, 生态环境, 变化态势, 时空分析

Abstract: Ecological environment pressure has been increasing steadily in China over time. The purpose of this paper is to assess ecological environment quality changes and its spatial variation. The data is collected from statistical yearbooks of 31 provincial administrative units in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. It provides a general assessment of ecological environment at provincial level and three economic regions from western to eastern China. In addition, the paper analyzes the trend of ecological environment and the gravity centre change of ecological environment quality. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. 1) During 1990-2010, the deterioration rate of the ecological environment reduced, but the ecological environment still worsened. The paper argued that this deterioration trend of the ecological environment in China was neither as the results "deterioration trend was under control" which was noticed by the government departments concerned, nor as many other scholars pointed out that "the deterioration rate of the ecological environment is increasingly intensified". 2) On the whole, from 1990 onwards, the ecological environment was worsening in China, but it was improved in some areas. The ecological deficit is still expanding and will continue for a period of time in the future. 3) From western to eastern China, the deterioration rate of ecological environment quality shows a downward trend. The reasons are the good natural environment, as well as the developed regional economy, technology and financial support. 4) As the economy has been developing rapidly in China for a long time, there has been an imbalance among the population, economy, society and eco-environment in the 31 provincial regions. The governments at all levels should give full play to the role of the eco-environmental protection and research. And it is imperative to take concrete measures, such as controlling population, improving environment and promoting sound economic development to balance the socio-ecological system.

Key words: China, eco-environment changes, time-space analysis