地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (12): 1253-1264.doi: 10.11821/xb200712002

• 区域产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国制造业的地理集聚与形成机制

贺灿飞, 潘峰华, 孙蕾   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院城市与区域规划系,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2007-04-09 修回日期:2007-08-27 出版日期:2007-12-25 发布日期:2007-12-25
  • 作者简介:贺灿飞(1972-), 男, 江西永新人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会和美国地理学会会员, 主要从事经济地理、产 业和区域经济等研究。E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40401015; 40535027)

Geographical Concentration of Manufactur ing Industries in China

HE Canfei, PAN Fenghua, SUN Lei   

  1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2007-04-09 Revised:2007-08-27 Published:2007-12-25 Online:2007-12-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40401015; No.40535027

摘要:

基于第一次经济普查资料,深入探讨了中国制造业的地理格局。通过计算不同地理尺度下的制造业产业分布基尼系数和Moran's I 系数,发现中国制造业高度聚集在珠三角、长三 角以及环渤海地区,在华北、东北、四川以及两湖地区有一些连片分布;空间尺度越小,产业划分越细,制造业在空间上越集中,省市县尺度的产业地理集中程度显著相关。基于比较 优势、全球化和制度分权以及集聚经济等相关理论,本文构建了考察影响产业地理集聚因素 的计量模型。统计分析表明,由于接近资源优势,农产品投入较多的产业较分散,金属矿物投入较多的产业较为集中,非金属矿物依赖性产业在四位数层次集中,在三位数层级显著分散。利用外资和参与国际贸易有利于产业地理集聚,区域分权促使制造业分散布局,在省级 层次尤为显著。集聚经济显著推动制造业地理集聚,但在县级层次更为重要。高技能劳动力比重较高和外部科研力量依赖性产业则较为分散,产业联系没能促进中国产业的地理集聚, 可能与地方保护和模仿政策等反市场力量有关。研究表明,空间尺度和经济转轨引致的制度变化对于理解中国制造业地理格局非常重要。

关键词: 制造业, 地理集中, 集聚经济, 比较优势, 区域分权, 中国

Abstract:

This paper examines the micro foundations of geographical concentration of Chinese manufacturing industries in China at very disaggregated levels using the most recent economic census data. The empirical results indicate that natural advantages, agglomeration economies and institutional changes together influence industrial location in China. Overall, industries bearing higher transportation costs and difficulty to ship are largely dispersed. Resource-based industries follow the pattern of natural advantages and show less agglomeration but metal mineral consuming industries are agglomerated. Trading establishments and foreign enterprises are heavily concentrated, confirming the importance of globalization effects. However, local protectionism has indeed discouraged industrial agglomeration, but provincial governments are more likely to succeed in exercising local protectionism policies and imitation strategy compared to the county governments. Agglomeration economies have done a better job in driving the geographical concentration of Chinese industries at the county level than at the province level. Proxies for knowledge spillovers are highly significant at the county level. The findings suggest that the spatial scale matters in understanding industrial clustering, and economic transition and its consequence are also critical in explaining the spatial pattern of Chinese industries.

Key words: manufacturing industries, geographical concentration, agglomeration economies, comparative advantage