地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (9): 2236-2248.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202209007

• 气候变化与农业地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭中部山地落叶阔叶林超级垂直带的发现与意义

张百平1(), 姚永慧1(), 肖飞2, 周文佐3, 朱连奇4, 张俊华4, 赵芳4, 白红英5, 王晶1,6, 余付勤1,6, 张兴航1,6, 刘俊杰1,6, 李佳宇1,6, 蒋娅1,6   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院精密测量科学与技术创新研究院,武汉 430071
    3.西南大学,重庆 400715
    4.河南大学,开封 475004
    5.西北大学,西安 710127
    6.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2022-01-05 修回日期:2022-07-29 出版日期:2022-09-25 发布日期:2022-11-03
  • 通讯作者: 姚永慧(1975-), 女, 湖北安陆人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事山地遥感与垂直带谱研究。E-mail: yaoyh@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张百平(1963-), 男, 河南博爱人, 博士, 研究员, 主要从事自然地理与GIS应用研究。E-mail: zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础资源调查专项(2017FY100900)

The finding and significance of the super altitudinal belt of montane deciduous broad-leaved forests in central Qinling Mountains

ZHANG Baiping1(), YAO Yonghui1(), XIAO Fei2, ZHOU Wenzuo3, ZHU Lianqi4, ZHANG Junhua4, ZHAO Fang4, BAI Hongying5, WANG Jing1,6, YU Fuqin1,6, ZHANG Xinghang1,6, LIU Junjie1,6, LI Jiayu1,6, JIANG Ya1,6   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Wuhan 430071, China
    3. Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    4. Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
    5. Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    6. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2022-01-05 Revised:2022-07-29 Published:2022-09-25 Online:2022-11-03
  • Supported by:
    National Scientific and Technological Basic Resources Investigation Project(2017FY100900)

摘要:

山地垂直带谱是气候和植被水平地带变化和更替的缩影,垂直带的带幅、带间过渡方式、带内结构和垂直带组合方式都表现出高度的异质性和复杂性。本文发现在中国南北过渡带中部太白山发育了世界上最宽的山地垂直带——山地落叶阔叶林垂直带。该垂直带从基带到典型垂直带再到先锋性垂直带皆为山地落叶阔叶林,3种本来可以独立存在的垂直带,连续分布形成了包含3个栎林亚带、2个桦林亚带的“三层五亚带”超级垂直带,远远超过正常情况下山地垂直带1000 m的阈值,且其上限达到了海拔2800 m。它的形成与秦岭所处的过渡性地理位置、秦岭中部垂直带谱的完整性、丰富的落叶木本植物种群及其形成的强大群落竞争优势等因素紧密相关。超级垂直带的发现有多方面的意义:它是中国南北过渡带又一重要的标志性自然地理特征;它表明山地垂直带在特殊的山地环境中可以具有非常复杂的内部结构和宽大带幅,这扩展了我们对山地垂直带谱结构及机理认识的广度,对于创建山地垂直带谱结构理论具有十分重要的意义;超级垂直带的发现,也说明中国南北过渡带还有很多科学内容有待我们去探索和发现,希望本文能起到抛砖引玉的作用,引起学界对超级垂直带形成的气候和生物多样性因素、地理过渡带的结构和生态效应等重大问题进行深入研究。

关键词: 超级垂直带, 中国南北过渡带, 秦岭, 垂直带谱结构, 带幅

Abstract:

Mountain altitudinal belts are the miniature of horizontal differentiation and succession of climatic and vegetational zonation. However, altitudinal belts' vertical range, transition model, inner structure and combining pattern vary from place to place. In Mt. Taibai of the central section of China's north-south transitional zone, we have found an altitudinal belt with the largest range in the world, namely, the montane deciduous broad-leaved forest, which extends continuously from the mountain base to about 2800 m, including basal oak belt, typical oak belt of two sub-belts and cold-tolerant pioneer birch belt of two sub-belts, which could otherwise develop independently. Characterized by a "three layers and five sub-belts" structure, this "super altitudinal belt" is much vertically broader than the threshold of 1000 m for normal altitudinal belts. Its formation is closely related with its transitional geographic location, integral spectrum of altitudinal belts in central Qinling Mountains, rich and diverse species of deciduous woody plants, and their strong competitiveness. The finding of the super altitudinal belt has multiple significance: Its existence is another significant physio-geographic feature of China's north-south transitional zone; it shows that an altitudinal belt may have rather complex inner structure and broad vertical range in some special mountain environment. This broadens our understanding of altitudinal belt structures and their mechanisms, and is of great significance for developing structural theory for montane altitudinal belts. This finding also demonstrates that there are many big questions for us to explore and study in the north-south transitional zone, and it is expected that our finding could trigger in-depth study of local climate and biodiversity responsible for the formation of this super belt, and of the complex structure and ecological effect of China's north-south transitional zone.

Key words: super altitudinal belt, China's north-south transitional zone, Qinling Mts., spectrum structure of altitudinal belts, vertical range of altitudinal belts