Evolutionary characteristics of China's outbound tourism flow in rank-size distribution from 2001 to 2015
JIANG Yiyi1,, WEN Xiaojin1,, LIU Yanxu2
1. Institute of International Tourism Research, China Tourism Academy, Beijing 100005, China
2. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
National Program for Support of Top-notch Young Professionals;The NationalSocial Science Fund of China, No.17AJY22;
The size of China's outbound tourism has expanded rapidly since the mid-1990s, and has presented a remarkably imbalanced distribution between different destinations. This study built a database on China's outbound tourism and destination's inbound tourism between 2001 and 2015, and validated that China's outbound tourists flow is in compliance with the hypothesis of law similar to the rank-size distribution theory. The coupling rank-size relationship between Chinese inbound tourists and the total number of inbound tourists received by the destinations has been divided into 5 types. The results show that the relation of the rank-size distribution of China's outbound tourism is consistent with the law of power function, and gathering to the high-ordered destinations. From 2001 to 2015, both the absolute leading and absolute lagging types exceed 45% of the total number of destinations. The Asian-Pacific countries receiving Chinese tourists are generally in the leading type, with destinations in Europe, America and Middle East lagging behind. Destinations with more tourists are more likely in the absolute lagging type than in the leading type, while those with fewer tourists are more likely in the absolute leading type than in the lagging. This study provides a new perspective for the analysis of outbound travel flow, and could serve as theoretical references for decision-making on market policy formulation and internationalized tourism industry layout.
Fitting double logarithmic scatter of the size distribution of the Chinese inbound tourists to the destinations compared with the total number of inbound tourists to the destinations during 2001-2015
Fitting double logarithmic scatter of the size distribution of the Chinese inbound tourists to the destinations (a) compared with the total consumption (b) in 2015
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Using entropy technology improved by standardization,Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows of 31 provinces of China's Mainland during 1993 to 2008 are calculated.Through comparison of these indexes of three periods during 1993～2008,which is 1993～1998,1999～2003 and 2004～2008,several conclusions can be drawn as follows. Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows of Guangdong are the highest,so is those of Shanghai and Beijing.As a result,these three provinces become three poles of Chinese inbound tourism.Meanwhile,Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows of Yunnan,Guangxi,Sichuan and Shaanxi are relatively high.Therefore,these four provinces are poles of inbound tourism of western China.Besides,Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows of Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang and Hubei are high.Hence,these four provinces are hot destinations of inbound tourism of Central China.Thus,regional structure of Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows is prominent.Moreover,it is revealed that the dynamic evolution of Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows is derived from the polarization effect as well as the trickle-down effect,so is the hierarchical diffusion effect.Geographical factors that affect the evolution of Regional Dominance Indexes can be divided into two categories,which are physical geography factors and human geography factors.Furthermore,we have constructed the gradient network structure of Chinese inbound tourism flows,which remains to be optimized and restructured. With entropy technology improved by standardization,this paper analyzes Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows of 31 provinces of China's Mainland during 1993～2008,aiming to explore dynamic evolution model of Regional Dominance Indexes of Chinese inbound tourism flows.In addition,it provides technology support for analyses of characteristics and potential mechanism of spatial and temporal evolutions of Chinese inbound tourism flows.
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The Chinese outbound travel market has been one of the fastest-growing international markets over the past decade. However, estimating the size and identifying key tourist-generating areas for the Chinese travel market remain a significant challenge for international marketers. This empirical study employs an incidental target-market approach and presents updated research findings concerning this burgeoning market. Primary and secondary tourist-generating cities of Mainland China were identified based on population size and level of socioeconomic development, and their market potential for outbound travel was assessed through a large-scale telephone survey. This study estimated that the current Chinese outbound travel market comprises approximately 22 million city residents, among whom 11.5 million have traveled or plan to travel to destinations outside Asia. In addition to estimating market size and making recommendations on target cities, the study also introduces an effective research design for identifying target markets and customers.
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Although Hong Kong effectively has a free public hospital service there have always been hospital fees. The differences are that the new fees are much higher than before and that mothers classified as nonentitled persons are required to pay for an obstetric package which covers one visit to an antenatal clinic delivery (vaginal or operative) and a 3 day stay in hospital. Extra services including extra visits to the antenatal clinic attract more charges. Anyone who fails to pay the new charge and simply turns up at a hospital in labour will be punished by being charged $48 000. It is a scheme buying into the community demand for some sort of sanction against women they see as abusing Hong Kongs health service. Ironically Hong Kong has one of the worlds lowest fertility rates. In 2005 the fertility rate for Hong Kong residents was 0.7 children per woman well below replacement levels (2.1) prompting the territorys chief executive Donald Tsang to exhort couples to have three children. However the vacuum has been rapidly filled not by civic-minded Hong Kong mothers but by mainland Chinas younger and increasingly wealthier women who are crossing the border to have their babies in Hong Kong. Since Hong Kong became part of China in 1997 the number of mainland women giving birth in Hong Kong has risen rapidly from 7810 in 2001 to 19 538 in 2005. (excerpt)
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Medical tourism has been developing very rapidly in recent years and Hong Kong has emerged as a new medical tourism destination. The purpose of the study is to explore the motivations and experiences of a sample of medical tourists in Hong Kong and hence semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with obstetric patients from Mainland China. The findings indicate that one of the most important reasons for their traveling to give birth in Hong Kong was to avoid China’s ‘One Child’ policy. Variations in staff attitudes were also found among different hospitals and even in the same hospital. The findings also suggest that perceived discrimination by the medical tourists emerges in the form of less favourable service and less information sharing.