陈淳, 袁振杰, 朱竑.
[CHEN Chun, YUAN Zhenjie, ZHU Hong.
Floating children in Guangzhou: The construction of "home" in the context of urbanization[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica
Floating children in Guangzhou: The construction of "home" in the context of urbanization
CHEN Chun1,2,, YUAN Zhenjie3, ZHU Hong3,
1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
2. Centre for Cultural Industry and Cultural Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
3. Southern China Human Geography and Urban Development Research Center, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41630635;
National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41701146;
Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.2016A030313427;
Science Foundation for the Excellent Youth Scholars of Ministry of Education of China, No.15YJCZH009;
"Floating children" are an essential part of Chinese migrants but have long been ignored in research. In this paper, focusing on the floating children in Guangzhou, we attempt to examine the roles of the floating children in the construction of home by conducting interview, drawing, writing and etc. The findings are: (1) "Floating children" are experiencing complex family separation and reorganization, which leads to the uncertainty and instability of the space of home. Meanwhile, mobility has become the most important characteristic of the construction of home under the background of China's urbanization; (2) the perception of home for floating children who moved between rural and urban areas is a mosaic constructed by the overlapped experiences of growth process of their variables. The rural-urban dualism has become an important way to understand the space of home under the background of new-type urbanization; (3) floating children have the ability and means to help create their homes. They play an active role in this process in a variety of ways such as sharing their parents' responsibilities. They have their own means to help hold their homes together during the course of the rural-to-urban migration even though their family members are always on the go. This study aims to enrich the research on migration and children issues from the perspective of human geography, and to provide the public with practical empirical experiences and possible policy recommendations to understand the current floating children issues.
SuX.'It is my home. I will die here': Tourism development and the politics of place in Lijiang, China. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, , 2012, 94(1): 31-45.
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Within the context of globalisation that confronts the world today, I aim in this paper to illustrate one particular state's attempts at constructing a `nation' amidst efforts to encourage its citizens to globalise, actions which are ostensibly, or at least, potentially, contradictory; and to analyse how these citizens who became transmigrants construct and negotiate their sense of `nation' and national identity. Specifically, my empirical questions centre on Singaporean transmigrants working in China. I ask the following questions. What happens to the sense of national identity among Singaporeans and their relationship with the `nation' when confronted with transnational conditions? What are the forces that impinge on the on-going construction of community and (re)construction of national identity amongst Singaporeans? What are the implications for a young state in its attempts at nation-building? This paper examines how the Singapore state continually attempts to establish the boundaries of the nation-state through hegemonic, policy and strategic actions. From the perspective of individuals, transnational location enhances their sense of national identity rather than its demise, leading to assertions of `Singaporeaness' and rootedness. I present empirical evidence that physical presence in a territory is not a necessary condition for a feeling of nationhood, and examine how Singaporeans maintain this sense of national identity through their everyday actions.
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Abstract How do professionals constitute their homes under conditions of extensive mobility? The study is based on interviews with professionals working for an international organization who are chronically mobile. Despite their high mobility, they describe little difficulty constructing homes. Home can best be understood here not as a fixed location, but as a set of relationships, to both humans and non-humans. There are elements of spatial proximity, but also of distance, and homes may be defined by both objects present and excluded. They may be a focal point, but at the same time part of a heterogeneous network that spans localities as well as binds past and present. Home is therefore territorially defined, but only as an extended network rather than as a bounded location.
There are important gaps in our knowledge about children who migrate. Even in societies which employ technologically sophisticated systems for monitoring and measuring migration, data on child migrants are incomplete and focused on specific groups of vulnerable children and young people. The lack of data and research on processes underpinning child migration and on the experiences of children who migrate are rooted in hegemonic Westernised assumptions about, and constructions of, childhood, family migration, and migration in general. Migrant children are represented as passive, needy and different; their accounts of themselves and their lives are silenced through adultist discourses about migration decision-making and experiences. The papers in this special edition of JEMS challenge these constructions of migrant children by focusing on the children's experiences in a multiplicity of migratory contexts. Presented first at the international conference hildren and Migration: Identities, Mobilities, Belonging organised by the Marie Curie Migrant Children Project at University College Cork, Ireland, in April 2008, the papers showcase emerging research which challenges the adult-centric nature of migration research and policy.
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Geographical research on education has grown rapidly in both volume and scope during the first decade of the twenty-first century, and one relatively new theme to emerge from this growing literature is that of education and aspiration. Much of the nascent interest in aspiration concerns access to quality schooling and University education. In this paper by contrast we highlight the importance of studying the ways aspirations are (re)produced within the school community. Our empirical focus is on low-income England under New Labour. Here we pursue a two-fold approach: firstly examining how education professionals define parental aspirations for primary-aged children as low; before secondly considering their alternative understandings of appropriate aspirations and the practices through which they seek to promote these, both in school and through the use of Extended Services for parents and children. In conclusion we highlight the importance of inward and outward geographies of education which 'recouple' schools with their social context, and discuss the moral and political ambiguities involved in practices designed to raise aspirations.
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Childhood and Migration in Europe explores the under-researched and often misunderstood worlds of migrant children and young people, drawing on extensive empirical research with children and young people from diverse migrant backgrounds living in a rapidly changing European society. Through in-depth exploration and analysis of the experiences of children who moved to Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century, it addresses the tendency of migration research and policy to overlook the presence of children in migratory flows. Challenging dominant adult-centric perspectives on contemporary global migration flows and presenting understandings of the lives of migrant children and young people from their own experiences, this book presents a detailed exploration of children's lives in four different migrant populations in Ireland. With a unique comparative perspective, Childhood and Migration in Europe advances upon current conceptualisations of migration and integration by interrogating accepted views of migrant children and focusing on children's own voices and experiences. It challenges the prevailing assimilationist discourses underlying much existing research and policy, which often construct migrant children as deficient in different ways and in need of 'being integrated'.
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Drawing upon ethnographic research in contemporary California, with case studies of migrants from Mexico, Central America, Korea, and Yemen, we analyze children's presence and participation in processes of migration and in the constitution of transnational social fields. Various facets of child-adult relations enter into children's movement across national borders, including their economic dependence and growing capacity to contribute labor; varied ways in which the needs and capacities of children of different ages and genders are defined; and their status as persons who are being "raised" and "developed" toward desired end points. These dimensions help shape patterns of chain and circulating migration; decisions about leaving children behind and sending for them; and the unusual circumstance of children who take the lead in migration (South Korean "parachute kids" living in suburban Los Angeles). "Sending children back" (or threatening to do so) is a deliberate strategy of child rearing used by transnational families. We consider how children help families stay connected across long distances, as well as the strains, conflicts, and emotional costs that may be involved. Children help constitute and reconfigure transnational social fields, and transnational practices, in turn, shape the contours of particular childhoods.
PunchS.Negotiating migrant identities: Young people in Bolivia and Argentina. Children's , 2007, 5(2): 95-112.
In rural Bolivia, like many rural areas of the majority world, there are few opportunities for permanent employment and most young people do not have access to their own land. Consequently, many young people in southern Bolivia migrate seasonally to Argentina and their migratory experience provides them with a sense of collective identity during periods spent within their home community. It also enables them to access consumer goods as well as to continue to maintain interdependent family ties by contributing financially to their households. This paper, based on ethnographic fieldwork in rural Bolivia, considers the positive and negative ways in which the young migrant identity offers young people alternative youth transitions as well as enhances their social and economic autonomy.
HaikkolaL.Making connections: Second-generation children and the transnational field of relations. , 2011, 37(8): 1201-1217.
Migrant and refugee children's and youth's experiences of transnational ties and processes are not well documented in the literature on transnationalism. Existing studies concentrate on children's socialisation or their future as second-generation adults. This article studies second-generation children and youths as subjects of transnational social relations. It focuses on two aspects: the formation of social relationships, and the orientations and forms of belonging that emerge. The article shows how children are incorporated into two types of network: one spanning the places of origin and destination, the other spanning several countries. The family mediates children's transnational ties and activities, but children also connect to their cross-border family members, particularly cousins, and form friendships across borders. This does not happen on its own, but must be mediated through return visits to the place of origin or to third countries. The transnational field of relations opens up a space in which to negotiate identity and belonging in relation to different places. The paper argues that, in contemporary societies, transnational fields of relations form a significant context for children's everyday lives. Further, the article posits that the social relationships which children build during their childhood can aid our understanding of the continuity of transnational engagement in the adult second generation.
BeazleyH.The construction and protection of individual and collective identities by street children and youth in Indonesia. , 2003, 13(1): 105-133.
Indonesia has a proliferation of children living on the streets of its larger cities. In the eyes of the state and dominant society, these children are seen to be committing a social violation, as their very presence contradicts state ideological discourse on family values and ideas about public order. Such an offence justifies the “cleaning up” of children from the streets, arrests, imprisonment and, in some extreme cases, torture and extermination. As a response to their marginalisation and subordination, street children in Yogyakarta, Central Java, have developed a “repertoire of strategies” in order to survive. These include the appropriation of urban niches within the city, in which they are able to earn money, feel safe and find enjoyment. These spaces have become territories in which identities are constructed, and where alternative communities are formed, and where street kids have created collective solutions for the dilemmas they confront in their everyday lives. This paper is a social analysis of the street boys' social world which exists within these marginal spaces. Using Visano's (1990) concept of a street child's life as a ‘career’, I examine the socialisation into the street child subculture: the Tikyan. By employing Turner's (1985,1994) ‘self-categorization’ theory, I discuss how a street boy's individual identity construction and performance entails a continual interaction with the Tikyan collective identity. Further, by drawing on the work of subcultural theorists, I reflect on how the Tikyan have developed their own code of street ethics, values and hierarchies, as a reaction to, and a subversion of, their imposed exclusion. I show how the Tikyan actively reject their ‘victim’ or ‘deviant’ label, and ‘decorate’ street life so that it becomes agreeable in their eyes. Instead of complaining about their lives (which is considered bad form), they reinforce the things that they feel are good about living on the street. Always, they are attempting to look for proof that street life is better than conventional life. Problems are often glossed over and treated with humour and a light-hearted disregard, and the children create a doctrine for themselves that it is ‘great in the street’; a cod-philosophy which is constructed to make life more tolerable. Over the months or years street children and youth learn to interact and comply with the expectations of their own group, and are more influenced by it. It is in this way that the Tikyan community enables a street child to establish a new identity, and is a means through which street children can voice their collective indignation at the way they are treated by mainstream society.
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This article examines the diverse ways in which southern African households/families employ children's migration as a strategy to enable them to cope with the impacts of HIV/AIDS. Based on qualitative research with both guardians and migrant children, it explores how decisions are made concerning where children should live. Such decisions are aimed at both meeting children's needs and also using their capacities in meeting wider household needs. Hence strategies adopted are often compromises, based on the sense of obligation of individual relatives, household resources and needs, the perceived needs and capabilities of children, and children's own preferences.
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Abstract Drawing on an interview-based case study of young people caring for dependent adult members of their households in Harare, this paper connects the experiences of young carers in Zimbabwe to global forces amely the HIV/AIDS pandemic and economic liberalisation. It is argued, firstly, that care-giving by young people is a largely hidden and unappreciated aspect of national economies which is growing as an outcome of conservative macroeconomic policies and the HIV/AIDS explosion. Secondly, that young people have a right to recognition of their work as work. Thirdly, while acknowledging that conceptualising childhood is problematic, there needs to be less emphasis on northern myths of childhood as a time of play and innocence and more attention on defending children's rights to work as well as to be supported in their work under appropriate circumstances. The articulation between global processes and the localised experiences of individual children as providers of care within the home contributes to efforts to re-introduce social reproduction as an important (but often missing) aspect of debates around globalisation. In addition, this article adds to the growing literature on the geographies of childhood while tackling the imbalance within that literature, whereby working young people and those of the global South are relatively neglected. Suggestions are offered in the conclusions for policy recommendations to recognise and support young carers in Africa, while calling for further research.
YoungL.Journeys to the street: The complex migration geographies of Ugandan street children. , 2004, 35(4): 471-488.
Children have generally been afforded little attention in migration research or unsatisfactorily included within family migration. Although they are an important consideration in family decisions to move, children also engage in autonomous, independent migration. Further, researchers now argue for the need to situate migration within political, economic and social conditions to obtain a full understanding of why people migrate. Through the use of children-centred research methods, and in-depth interviews with key informants, this paper considers children's journeys to the street in Uganda. By integrating an analysis of Ugandan street children's spatial origins with the familial and societal contexts of their migration decisions, this research highlights the complexity of their migration. In addition, an exploration of the impact of changing social, spatial and temporal conditions on street children's movements illustrates that their journeys are far more than just single processes.
Abstract: Until the 1990s, the children were marginalized in the geographical research. With the drive of both human geography and social science, the childhood’s social space and the children’s place experience draw human geographers’ focus. The publication of Children’s Geographies: playing, living, learning and the foundation of the journal- Children’s Geographies indicated that children’s geographies, as a newly-built branch, had come into being and was developing day by day. This review traces back the academic background to the formation of children’s geographies, and analyses the concerned papers in the journal of Children’s Geographies and other three authority journals in the geographic field. After the detailed review, the authors find out two main research topics: 1) the social space of childhood: the adult’s discipline and children’s resistance in public space, school and home; 2) the diversified childhood under the globalization: mobility and difference. Based on this review, the paper proposes the potential research trends in China, aiming at the localization of children’s geographies and the integration with the western research.
SunYukang, YuanYuan.Neighborhood influences on adolescent development under the background of urban residential space differentiation: A case study of Lujiang Village and Yijing Community. , 2014, 33(6): 756-764.
NanaZ.Home divided, home reconstructed: Children in rural-urban migration in contemporary China. Children's , 2015, 13(4): 381-397.
This article is centred on the geographies of Chinese children in contemporary China – an area which has been problematically overlooked in geographical literature on childhood. In employing unique mobile research methods by tracking migrant children through the migration cycle, the author conducted an extensive ethnographic study of rural migrant children aged 8–17 in China. The article explores rural children's everyday lived experience of migration and how migrant children negotiate and articulate home and belonging while on the move. The study demonstrates the dynamic environment that migrant children inhabit, the fluid, contextual and mobile nature of their life in rural migrant households, their migrancy and their active involvement in homemaking.
QianJunxi, GuoJunwanguo.Migrants on exhibition: The emergence of migrant worker museums in China as a neoliberal experiment on governance. , 2018. DOI: 10.1080/07352166.2017.1406788.
This article develops a critical investigation of the recent emergence of migrant worker museums (MWMs) in Chinese cities. Though studies on migrant workers in urban China have examined in detail the state and popular discourses that construct migrants as uncivilized and inferior, limited attention has been dedicated to a more recent line of discursive formulation, which idealizes and romanticizes migrant workers as docile, hard-working subjects making laudable contribution to the development of postreform urban China. The MWMs are built in accord with such new discourses. With a detailed analysis of the MWMs in Shenzhen and Guangzhou, this article argues that MWMs depoliticize both the domains of labor and everyday life and render invisible exploitative labor relations by eulogizing migrant labor; advocating enterprising, self-reliant migrant subjects; and praising the generous care of the state. Hence, though the MWMs contribute to reversing the negative stereotypes of migrant workers, they can nonetheless be theorized as a neoliberal experiment on the governance of people and labor.