李智, 张小林, 李红波, 袁源.
[LI Zhi, ZHANG Xiaolin, LI Hongbo, YUAN Yuan.
Evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level: Taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica
Evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level: Taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example
LI Zhi,, ZHANG Xiaolin,, LI Hongbo, YUAN Yuan
School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571164, No.41501187;
In the context of the new era, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to promote urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization by exploring the evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system. In this paper, we examined the evolution paths and the driving mechanism of this system at the county level based on both the land change survey data and remote sensing data in 1995 and 2015, when taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example, namely developed Zhangjiagang, moderately-developed Taixing, and less-developed Lianshui at different levels of economic development. Based on the empirical study, in this paper, three typical evolution paths of the urban-rural scale system at the county level in Jiangsu province were summarized, and they fell into three types: Developed County, Moderately Developed County, and Less Developed County. In this case, some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) the number of settlements in the county decreased, but the total size increased; (2) the total size of rural settlements decreased, and the size of cities and towns increased at different speeds, when the town size gradually exceeded the urban size; (3) the number and the built-up area of high grade settlements increased, while those of low grade settlements decreased; (4) the polarization feature of the county's development became increasingly significant before gradually becoming weak; (5) the characteristics of the spatial cluster concerning the urban-rural scale system became increasingly significant, and the number of hot-points increased in the county area; (6) urban and rural construction land constantly expanded, when Chengguan town and key towns experienced the main change; (7) the spatial pattern of the urban-rural scale system evolved from the single center to double centers, and then to multi-centers. Furthermore, there were two common characteristics, namely urban-dominant effect and clumped-distributive effect, in the developing process of the urban-rural scale system in different counties. Then, based on the analysis of the key influencing factors, in this paper, the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level was put forward. In this study, economic growth, urbanization, transport network, and institutional management stand for four ways to propel progress. They are like the four wheels of a car, reinforcing and depending on one another and forming an integrated whole, in which the urban-rural settlement system constantly evolves.
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"This paper is an analysis of the city-size distribution for thirty-five countries of the world in 1975; the purpose is to explain statistically the regularity of the rank-size distribution by the number of cities included in the urban systems. The rank-size parameters have been computed for each country and also for four large urban systems in which several population thresholds have been defined. These thresholds seem to have more influence than the number of cities included in the urban system on the regularity of the distribution." The data are from the U.N. Demographic Yearbook.
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World-city literature often relies on a priori assumptions rather than quantifiable measures to discern the global urban hierarchy. In search of comparable international indicators, many studies use the corporate headquarters of multinational corporations (MNCs) as primary locational data. Recognizing that MNCs play a dominant role in the global economy, we argue that reliance on headquarters locations alone distorts the contours of the urban hierarchy. The method overstates the importance of urban centers in the developed countries and economies dominated by large corporations; conversely, it underestimates the importance of lower-level circuits of regional communication, transaction centers in developing countries, and cities in less-centralized economies. This bias is not simply a technical matter: it asserts the power of the core economies, while understating the diversity and complexity of global interactions. We propose to include MNC first-level subsidiary locations in a more refined measure of world-city status.
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The notion of a hierarchy among cities has long been part of the theoretical tool kit of urban sociologists, geographers, and economists. Reviewing the evolution of the urban hierarchy concept, this paper empirically demonstrates a hypothesized transition in the U.S. urban hierarchy during the twentieth century, from size based to network based. Three urban types, following distinct trajectories during this shift, are explored: the primate city, the offline metropolis, and the wired town. Data on the economic structure, population size, and airline passenger traffic of 64 U.S. metropolitan areas from 1900 to 2000 are used to test the hypothesis of a hierarchical transition. Results suggest that a size-based hierarchy dominated in the early twentieth century but was replaced or augmented in the mid-1940s with a network-based hierarchy. The paper concludes with a discussion of the study's limitations and directions for future research.De los lugares centrales a las redes: La transición en la jerarquía urbana de los Estados Unidos desde 1900 hasta el 2000 (Zachary P. Neal)ResumenLa noción de jerarquía urbana ha sido utilizada por mucho tiempo como parte del instrumental teórico de la sociología urbana, la geografía y la economía. Este artículo demuestra empíricamente la transición ocurrida en la jerarquía urbana de los Estados Unidos durante el siglo XX en que se pasó de una jerarquía basada en el tama09o de las ciudades a otra basada en las redes. Se abordan tres tipos urbanos que siguieron trayectorias distintas durante dicha transición: el modelo de primacía urbana, el modelo de la metrópolis autónoma y el modelo de la ciudad conectada. Para comprobar esta hipótesis de una transición en el tipo de jerarquía urbana, se hace uso de datos sobre estructura económica, población y tráfico aéreo de pasajeros de 64 áreas metropolitanas estadounidenses en el período 1900 – 2000. Los resultados indican que la jerarquía urbana basada en el tama09o fue el modelo dominante a principios del siglo XX pero fue reemplazada o aumentada a mediados de los a09os 40 con una jerarquía basada en redes. La conclusión del artículo incluye una discusión de las limitaciones del estudio y posibilidades para investigaciones futuras.
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From data on French cities population covering almost two centuries the viability of rank-size parameters for describing the evolution of city size distributions is tested. We first demonstrate the sensitivity of the Paretos exponent to the variations of city sample size. The population threshold for which the adjustment of the city size distribution remains stable appears considerably lower than usually admitted. Then it is shown that the non-Paretian behaviour of city size distributions which appears in some censuses can be linked to the particular growth process of middle-sized cities. It can be explained in terms of deviations of Gibrats law of proportionate effect and modeled in a simple way. (EXCERPT)
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By means of the theory of multifractals, this paper is devoted to studying the spatial structure of urban systems, taking man-land relationships into consideration. Taking the system of cities and towns in Henan Province, China, as a example, and using the box counting method and μ-weight formulae, we calculate the values of the Lipschitz-Hlder exponent α(), the fractal dimension of the support of singularities α), the sequence of mass exponent τ(), and the dimensions of fractal measures of the urban systems in the studied area. The data processing reveals that the scaling range reflecting log-linearity of complex fractals is narrower than that of simple fractals. This denotes that fractal systems are some kinds of evolving systems, and multifractals usually come from common fractals at least where geographical phenomena are concerned. The computation results show that the spatial structure of the Henan urban system has multifractality to some extent, with a scaling breakdown in the curve as well as the spectrum of fractal dimensions when the moment order =-4. That is to say, =-3 perhaps is a critical value for , the multifractals come on well only when ∈[-3,∞], as for ≤-4, the multifractal measures are abnormal: the curve and the q function fail to converge, which maybe implies a sort of phase transition from a rural to urban settlement system during the course of regional urbanization. Moreover, this is another evidence that multifractals generate by evolution from simple fractals. A discovery is made that the fractal dimension of spatial structure of urban systems is less than that of river systems in the same studied region, which maybe means that urban systems as fractals must be included by hydrographical nets, i.e. water systems. We can develop what is called "inclusion principle" about man-land relations that is as important as the "matching principle" about urban systems. Both the matching principle and inclusion principle will be supposed to be the basic principles of fractal urban geography, which will play a significant role in urban plan and geographical space optimization in the future.
In the context of economic globalization, Fujian is in the comprehensive industrialization stage. For all kinds of resources fluid collecting and dispersion, Fujian development has both opportunities and challenges. In the future regional planning work, it is important to study how to build a hierarchical structure, functional structure, and spatial structure of urban system in order to push the coordinating development among regions, and make the economic zone on the western coast of China grow up successfully. Therefore, based on the status of urban system, this paper analyzed the structural feature of urban system from four aspects, including node, axis, network and region. The results show: 1) the economic development has formed a pattern with 2 main centers (Xiamen, Fuzhou), 1 subcenter (Quanzhou), 6 regional centers and a batch of production towns; 2) the economic development level in the southeastern Fujian is higher than that in northwestern Fujian, and the central region is next to the southeastern Fujian; 3) spatial distribution of urban system is reasonable; and 4) the difference of economic development level of all regional gradient is fairly great.
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Comparing the city-size distribution at the urban agglomeration (UA) scale is important for understanding the processes of urban development. However, comparative studies of city-size distribution among China three largest UAs, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration (BTHA), the Yangtze River Delta agglomeration (YRDA), and the Pearl River Delta agglomeration (PRDA), remain inadequate due to the limitation of data availability. Therefore, using urban data derived from time-series nighttime light data, the common characteristics and distinctive features of city-size distribution among the three UAs from 1992 to 2015 were compared by the Pareto regression and the rank clock method. We identified two common features. First, the city-size distribution became more even. The Pareto exponents increased by 0.17, 0.12, and 0.01 in the YRDA, BTHA, and PRDA, respectively. Second, the average ranks of small cities ascended, being 0.55, 0.08 and 0.04 in the three UAs, respectively. However, the average ranks of large and medium cities in the three UAs experienced different trajectories, which are closely related to the similarities and differences in the driving forces for the development of UAs. Place-based measures are encouraged to promote a coordinated development among cities of differing sizes in the three UAs.
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The previous literature has generally found that most Chinese cities were undersized in the 1990s. However, little is known about how urban agglomeration in China has evolved since the country began to experience much faster urbanization and deep marketization after 2000. Based on panel data of 281 cities between 2000 and 2013, our spatial panel data regression results show that the scale impact of city size on urban productivity appears to have an inverted U shape, and its effect will grow when the cities industrial structure becomes more dominated by the service sector. There are also significant spatial interactions and spatial heterogeneity of urban agglomeration among Chinese cities. Furthermore, we compute the optimal size for each city and find that most Chinese cities are still undersized in recent years. Based on our findings, we argue that the Chinese government should focus on promoting sufficient growth of medium sized cities in its new urbanization strategy.
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This paper sets out to re-unite urban and rural areas in the study of development processes across the developing world. It briefly discusses past approaches to development and to rural-urban relations, arguing that there is a need to re-connect these two spaces in a profound way. For example, both theoretical and empirical approaches to development studies are often based on the premise that t...
HeYanhua, ZhouGuohua, TangChengli, et al.Theory on the spatial organization of urban-rural integration in urban agglomeration areas. , 2017, 36(2): 241-252.