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    20 February 2012, Volume 67 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Sector-Specific Spatial Statistic Model for Estimating Inter-regional Trade Flows: A Case Study of Agricultural, Chemical and Electronic Sectors in China
    LIU Weidong, LIU Hongguang, FAN Xiaomei, CHEN Jie, TANG Zhipeng
    2012, 67 (2):  147-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202001
    Abstract ( 735 )   PDF (992KB) ( 813 )   Save
    Based on theories of regional interactions and competition and the gravity model, this paper first develops a sector-specific spatial statistic model to estimate inter-regional trade flows by employing a geographically weighted regression technique. The model takes into consideration sector-specific input-output relationships. That is, in some sectors there exists strong competition between regions while other sectors may need close inter-regional cooperation in terms of supply linkages. The former case results in less inter-regional trade but the latter witnesses more trade. The model also introduces the spatial lag factor of trade flows between regions. Then, the paper applies the model to estimate inter-provincial trade flows of three sample sectors, i.e., agriculture, chemistry and electronics, with data from the 2007 provincial input-output tables of China. The computing result shows that the sector-specific model can significantly increase the reliability of inter-regional trade flow estimation. It also reveals that the bandwidth of weighting function is a key factor in the sector-specific model; that is, the smaller the bandwidth, the more the trade flows. To a certain degree, the bandwidth reflects the degree of geographical concentration of economic activities while the bandwidth itself is different from sector to sector. Different sectors display different features of inter-regional trade flows. For example, agricultural trade flows are mainly from the inland provinces to the coastal ones and show strong intra-sector competition while trade flows of chemical and electronic sectors take place mainly inside the coastal regions and show an intra-sector cooperation relationship.
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    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Urbanization and Land and Water Resources Efficiency of Oasis Cities in Tarim River Basin
    YANG Yu, LIU Yi, JIN Fengjun, DONG Wen, LI Li
    2012, 67 (2):  157-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202002
    Abstract ( 677 )   PDF (3224KB) ( 711 )   Save
    This paper examines the spatial pattern of land and water resources as well as urbanization and their interactions in the Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China. In order to do so, we extract the data associated with efficiency of land and water resources and urbanization for the years of 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008. Specifically the paper investigates the extent to which agglomeration of population and economic activities varies geographically and interplays with spatial pattern of resources efficiency through computation of global Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* index and a coordinated development model. The method used provides clear evidence that urbanization, land and water resources efficiency have shown an uneven spatial pattern due to oasis distribution, climate, and initial phase of urban development. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) Agglomeration and dispersion of urbanization are not consistent with those of land and water resources efficiency. (2) Evolution of the hot and cold spots of urbanization, and land and water resources efficiency, in different trajectories, indicate that there are no significant interactions between them. (3) The evidence that numbers of hot and cold spots of the three factors present varying structures reveals the dominance of unequal urban development in the study area. (4) Significant differences are also found between sub-river basins in terms of the three factors, which is a reflection of the complex physical geography of the area. (5) The degree of development coordination of cities in the Tarim River Basin is generally low in part as a reflection of difference in spatial patterns of the three factors. It is also shown that the pattern of the degree of coordination development is relatively stable compared with evolution of hot and cold spots of the three factors.
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    Measuring Time Accessibility with Its Spatial Characteristics in Urban Areas of Beijing
    DENG Yu, CAI Jianming, YANG Zhenshan, WANG Hao
    2012, 67 (2):  169-178.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202003
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (2158KB) ( 1833 )   Save
    Construction of road infrastructure is a fundamental aspect of the city operation and development, as well as an important pathway and focus to realize the physical urban-rural integration. The long period implementation of "ring + radiation" road system in Beijing has brought a major impact on its urban infrastructure construction and its time accessibility. Particularly in recent years, the rapid increase of private cars in Beijing has become a greater burden to its road system, which has in turn seriously hampered the urban commuting efficiency and added the costs to people's lives. To deal with such challenges and enhance the frog-leap development of transport infrastructure, Beijing has speeded up its development pace in light railway construction since 2008, so as to improve its commuting capacity. This paper tries to measure the time accessibility and its spatial characteristics in the urban areas of Beijing by applying a combined method of vector and raster attribute data generated from major roads and rail transport infrastructure. By using a dual index of accessibility and road density, the paper further reveals the features of spatial accessibility and construction of road systems in the urban areas of the capital, as well as their different presences in the northern and southern parts of the city. The findings of this paper could provide a scientific basis for future urban planning and road system construction for Beijing Municipality.
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    Spatial Patterns and Their Formation Mechanism of Supply Logistics Network of Wholesale Markets in Guangzhou
    PAN Yujuan, CAO Xiaoshu
    2012, 67 (2):  179-188.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202004
    Abstract ( 723 )   PDF (2717KB) ( 659 )   Save
    Urban wholesale markets are distribution centers that integrate the information flow, trade flow, and material flow; and their logistics activities belong to the urban logistics activities. Based on the data of an investigation in the wholesale markets of Guangzhou city, this paper examines the spatial patterns of supply logistics network by using social network analysis. Firstly, a 2-mode matrix comprising 19 supplying places and 21 receiving places is constructed, with the visualization of the relationship between places. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The allocation of logistics nodes is characterized by surrounding traffic lines, concentrating in inner cities, and distributing to spheres. (2) Most of the goods in wholesale markets come from districts outside Guangzhou city, especially from foreign countries, other provinces, other parts of the Pearl River Delta, and northern Guangdong Province. (3) The 21 receiving places vary greatly in goods quantities, and form a reversed y-shaped pattern in the city. Secondly, applying the centrality analysis of the logistics network through measuring the indicators of degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, the core-edge places of the network are identified. Results indicate that the Pearl River Delta, other provinces and Baiyun District are the core supplying places, the wholesale markets of Liuhua and Zhongda are core receiving places; while Nansha District and Huangpu Maogang wholesale market are the edge places in the network. Finally, this paper discusses the formation mechanism of the spatial patterns in four aspects: the city character, the urban spatial disparity, the industrial cluster, and the logistics service. In brief, by analyzing the spatial patterns and their formation mechanism of supply logistics network of wholesale markets in Guangzhou, this paper is expected to provide helpful reference for the future optimization of the urban logistics space.
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    Housing Conditions, Patterns and Mechanisms of Second Generation Migrants in Urban China: A Case Study of Six Large Cities
    LI Zhigang
    2012, 67 (2):  189-200.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202005
    Abstract ( 501 )   PDF (815KB) ( 792 )   Save
    With a database based on 3168 copies of questionnaires collected from six Chinese cities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenyang, Chengdu, Hangzhou and Zhengzhou, this study examines housing conditions, patterns and determinants of second-generation migrants of urban China. With a series of quantitative analysis, it is found that three types of Chinese new migrants, labor migrants, intellectual migrants, and investor migrants have different housing conditions. For instance, the average housing area of new migrants is about 20.69 sq. m., while that of the intellectual migrants is the biggest (24.87 sq. m.) and that of the labor migrants is the smallest (16.26 sq. m.). In terms of the quality of housing facilities, the score of the facility index for the new migrants in general is by no means high, about 0.35. Moreover, investor migrants hold the best facilities, while labor migrants hold the worst, and intellectual migrants is in between. It is indicated that housing conditions of new migrants are largely differentiated. Second, after three decades of market reform, housing conditions and patterns of new migrants are still mainly determined by institutional factors such as hukou. In addition, housing facility qualities are mainly influenced by such factors as hukou status, income, educational background, marriage, age and migrant types, and hukou is the major determinant for the housing facility quality of second generation migrants.
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    Analysis of the Coupling of Farmland and Rural Housing Land Transition in China
    LONG Hualou, LI Tingting
    2012, 67 (2):  201-210.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202006
    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (1020KB) ( 812 )   Save
    Land use transition refers to the changes in land use morphology of a certain region over a certain period of time driven by socio-economic change and innovation, and it usually corresponds to the transition of socio-economic development phase. In China, farmland and rural housing land are the major sources of land use transition. This paper analyzes the spatio-temporal coupling characteristics of farmland and rural housing land transition in China, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data in 2000 and 2008, and the data from Reports on China's Land-use Survey and Update during 2000-2008 released by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China. Conclusions are summarized as follows: 1) During 2000-2008, the correlation coefficient of farmland vs. rural housing land change is -0.921, showing that the change pattern of farmland and rural housing land is uncoordinated; 2) The result of Spearman rank correlation analysis of the change rate of rural housing land and the correlation coefficient of farmland vs. rural housing land change shows that rural housing land change has played a major role in the process of farmland and rural housing land transformation from each other; and 3) During 2000-2008, a high-degree coupling is found between farmland and rural housing land change in the southeast China, based on the calculation of the coupling coefficient of China's farmland and rural housing land change at provincial level. In general, farmland and rural housing land transition in China is driven by socio-economic, bio-physical and managerial three-dimensional driving factors through the interactions among rural population, farmland and rural housing land. However, the spatio-temporal coupling phenomenon and mechanism of farmland and rural housing land transition in China are largely due to the 'dual-track' structure of rural-urban development.
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    Seismic Vulnerability of Rural Housing and Regional Anti-disaster Strategies in China
    GAO Xiaolu, JI Jue, JIN Fengjun, NIU Fangqu
    2012, 67 (2):  211-220.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202007
    Abstract ( 564 )   PDF (3154KB) ( 700 )   Save
    In China, more than 80% of the total loss of seismic disasters happened in rural areas. In particular, damages of rural housing have been the main cause of casualties and property losses. This study evaluated the seismic vulnerability of counties in terms of the structure of rural houses, based on the share of different building structures including wood, brick, mix, reinforced concrete, the earthquake intensity zoning of China, and probabilities of building damage by structures. With a comprehensive damage index made up of damage amount and damage ratio, all the counties are classified into four vulnerability levels: low, medium, high, and extremely high. Then the influencing factors of vulnerabilities and their spatial differentiations are explored, including those of building structure, earthquake intensity and population density. Accordingly, suggestions are made for anti-disaster strategies in different areas.
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    The Influencing Factors of Rural Household Energy Consumption Structure in Mountainous Areas of Southwest China: A Case Study of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province
    LIANG Yutian, FAN Jie, SUN Wei, HAN Xiaoxu, MA Hailong, SHENG Kerong, XU Yong, WANG Chuansheng
    2012, 67 (2):  221-229.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202008
    Abstract ( 608 )   PDF (833KB) ( 811 )   Save
    No-commercial energy like firewood and straw is the basic livelihood asset on which the rural households in poverty-stricken and mountainous areas rely. Over-harvesting firewood is one of the dominant factors for soil erosion and deforestation in ecologically frangible region. Mountainous areas of Southwest China are poverty-stricken areas and ecologically frangible region as well. This study investigates the rural energy consumption characteristics by 946 survey questionnaires in the city of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Overall, coal is the dominant energy, and the second is by non-commercial or traditional energy such as firewood and straw, followed by electricity and biogas utilization. Meanwhile, energy consumption structure of rural households displays a marked spatial distribution, with coal dominated at flat river valley areas and firewood concentrated in mountainous areas. Moreover, this study also analyzes the factors affecting the proportion of non-commercial and commercial energy consumption by the Tobit model. The results show that (1) Firewood and straw consumption is affected mainly by the per-capita forest land and per-capita arable land, while coal is subject to price, availability and accessibility. (2) With the increase of per-capita income, the proportion of the non-commercial energy would decline while the proportion of coal and electric energy would rise. However, it is difficult for poverty-stricken areas such as mountainous areas of Southwest China to upgrade the energy consumption structure due to living assets shortage and low income. (3) Development of education and expansion of employment in non-agricultural industry are helpful for households in this region to reduce the proportion of traditional energy and increase the proportion of commercial energy consumption. Only in this way can their energy consumption structure be changed.
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    The Dimensions and Characteristics of the Perception of Chinese Calligraphic Landscape
    ZHANG Jie, LU Shaojing, JIANG Zhijie, LI Qian, LIANG Li, LI Na, HUANG Zhengming
    2012, 67 (2):  230-238.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202009
    Abstract ( 554 )   PDF (1340KB) ( 1065 )   Save
    Combining the human/natural landscapes with the element of Chinese calligraphy which is characterized by the handwriting of Chinese characters, Chinese calligraphic landscape is an essential part of cultural landscapes. And it is worthy to be taken into consideration when exploring the factors causing the spatial differentiation of places and landscapes. The calligraphic landscape is defined as a portion of geographical space with certain visual characteristics and special sense of place resulted from the layout of assembles of calligraphic works/analogous calligraphic works with a certain scale or visual performance. The basic characteristics of the calligraphic landscape can be explored by the investigation of the perceptual dimensions of the calligraphic landscape. By the open-ended questionnaires, undergraduate students, excluding those who major in calligraphy, from Nanjing University and Nanjing University of Finance, were investigated in April and May in 2004. A total of 496 valid questionnaires were collected finally. After context encoding and weight processing, this article reveals the public perceptual characteristics of Chinese calligraphic landscape. Six perceptual dimensions are concluded as i) perceptual time, ii) geographic environment, iii) calligraphic idiosyncrasy, iv) the calligraphy carrier form, v) value and vi) individual psychology, among which calligraphic idiosyncrasy and geographic environment are the most important factors influencing the perceptual process of calligraphic landscapes. Then this article describes different types and their perceptual characteristics of the settings of calligraphic landscapes. According to the statistical results of perceptual frequency, the settings investigated are divided as three levels as i) the scenic spots thought to be the representative of calligraphic landscape by the public, ii) the place related with the public's normal life where calligraphic landscapes can be perceived more easily if related with exhibition/economy/daily life/culture, and iii) the news media and squares where calligraphic landscapes are believed impossible to present. The result of eye movement analysis indicates the importance of calligraphic landscapes as landmarks during tourists' perception of a scenic spot. On tourism scenic spots, compared with the calligraphic landscapes in the garden, the lake and seaside, those in the mountains, the palace and the temples are more impressive for the public. This research has contributed to the empirical study of Chinese cultural landscape with a valid method.
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    Characteristics and Causes of Situational Theme Restaurant Staff's Sense of Place: A Case Study of the Taste-Yunnan Restaurant in Guangzhou
    CAI Xiaomei, ZHU Hong, LIU Chen
    2012, 67 (2):  239-252.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202010
    Abstract ( 858 )   PDF (1018KB) ( 742 )   Save
    The sense of place is a core issue in the recent geography studies. The meaning of the sense of place is that the special emotional experience is produced by place, and it provides a new perspective to discuss the human-land relationship. However, most of the related studies focus on the sense of place in the macro-spatial dimensions, few of them has paid attention to it in the micro space. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to that in micro space. The situational theme restaurant is a kind of theme restaurants with one or more themes that can offer unique cultural atmosphere, food and service, associated with the participatory nature of activities and games, in order to create a place with participative situation and special experience for its customers, and it is also a micro cultural space which constructs a hyperriality different from the external environment for their staff by simulating and duplicating the real world. The Taste-Yunnan Restaurant in Guangzhou is a typical situational theme restaurant, which constructs a micro cultural space by simulating the minority culture in Yunnan Province. Most of the employees are from villages in Yunnan or other places outside Guangzhou. We made an investigation of the staff in the Taste-Yunnan Restaurant using participant observation and in-depth interview based on the dimensions of the sense of place. The main results can be obtained as follows. (1) The staff's senses of place are different between in the situational theme restaurant and external environment. Specifically, they have place identity to and place dependence on the situational theme restaurant which they are working in, but just have place dependence on the external urban space except for the restaurant. (2) The staff has strong place identity to and place dependence on the situational theme restaurant which they are working in, because of the harmonious social context among the staff, good working conditions and living conditions, and staff's cultural identity to the situation which the restaurant constructs. (3) The staff has place dependence on the city, but no place identity to the urban spaces except for the restaurant which they are working in, as the city offers better working conditions, worse natural environment, unfamiliar city space, staff's strong attachment to their hometown as well as their self-identity as "others". (4) Staff's different familiarities, environmental and cultural identity, and belongingness or attachment to the situational theme restaurant and the city, cause their different place identity to and place dependence on the restaurant and the external environment.
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    Information Theory for Human Settlements Research and Its Info-spectrum Images System
    WANG Yang, ZHAOWanmin
    2012, 67 (2):  253-265.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202011
    Abstract ( 544 )   PDF (1581KB) ( 758 )   Save
    According to the inner requirements of systemic and integration for human settlements research, this paper interpreted the human settlement study contents and process from the perspective of Information theory on the basis of Information theory, the Sciences of Human Settlement, Geo-Info Spectrum theory and City Image theory. With epistemology logic of the Image of the City theory, it puts forward the concept of "The Images of Human Settlement Environment" and "The Info-spectrum System of Human Settlement Environment", providing methodology cogitation model for human settlement study. This paper thinks the interpretation of human settlement environment research from the perspective of Information theory includes human settlement environment noumenon definition, information flowing direction definition, information flowing circle content and quantity measuring method definition, on the basis of which a series of concepts can be derived, such as human settlement environment information subject, object, and carrier; forward information flowing, backward information flowing; information cubic and human settlement environment information entropy and so on. This paper puts forward a theory of human settlement environment info-spectrum conceptual system with the reference on the Sciences of Human Settlement and Geo-Info Spectrum theory, and believes that Human Settlement Environment Info-Spectrum contains three modules (natural environment module, social environment module, artificial environment module), three spatial scales (macro spatial level, median spatial level, micro spatial level), three types (symptom info-spectrum, diagnosis info-spectrum, implementation info-spectrum) and three dimensions (space info-spectrum, time info-spectrum, space-time info-spectrum), which relate with each other. The establishment and realization of Human Settlements Environment Info-Spectrum conceptual hierarchy provides human settlement research with a digital simulation, experiment, analysis and controlling platform.
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    Speculation of Human-earth Harmony Theory Based on Yi Studies and Geomancy
    SUN Fenghua
    2012, 67 (2):  266-282.  doi: 10.11821/xb201202012
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (1397KB) ( 1758 )   Save
    This paper introduces the background and significance of the study. It points out that Yi Studies is not only philosophy but also philosophical methodology for studying man-land relationship by human geography. It discusses the scientific nature of Zhou Yi which collects most of the harvests in Yi Studies. It also studies "Joseph Needham's puzzle" in passing with an answer given. This paper states that the long developing process marked by four historic periods of Yi Studies is a philosophic evolution of Yi Studies in understanding the laws of man-land relationship. It discusses the laws of man-land relationship indicated by philosophical thoughts of Lianshan Yi, Guicang Yi and Zhou Yi. It places more emphasis on the study of a philosophical methodology of human geography—the interpretation of man-land relationship by Zhou Yi. Geomancy originated from Yi Studies, and therefore, there was no geomancy without Yi Studies. Modern geomancy is closely interrelated with China's human geography. The reasons are shown as follows. (1) Physical geographical environmental factors are the basis of geomancy. (2) A mass of geographical knowledge and methods are the stanchion of geomancy study. (3) The core of geomancy study is man-land relationship. The paper studies dialectical relationship between human-earth harmoniousness theory, Zhou Yi and geomancy and reveals the roles of Zhou Yi and geomancy play in research and coordination of man-land relationship. As viewpoints of geomancy are quite different, Chinese modern human geography should unscramble its special field—geomancy historically, objectively, scientifically and dialectically. Correspondently, the practical process of modern geomancy is discussed with the layout of the overall planning of Guoling International Tourism Holiday District of Qinghai Yellow River as an example. Geomancy contains certain superstition, but it also has important scientific thoughts. We should neither cover its pseudoscientificity with its scientificity, nor should we deny its scientificity by its pseudoscientificity. If scientific thoughts of geomancy were set up in the research and application community of geomancy, no matter whether in academic schools or folk ones, the real scientific geomancy would be established, and all of superstitions in geomancy would have gone. The paper suggests that the studies of Yi Studies and geomancy by Chinese human geography should be combined with Western human geography and relevant subjects by discarding the dross and selecting the essence, eliminating the false and retaining the true, making the past serve the present and foreign things serve China as well. Hence, Chinese human geography development can be impelled and human geography with Chinese characteristics will be set up. Finally, the paper points out that Chinese geomancy and human geography are now entering a critical historical transition period, so more concern, tolerance and space are needed.
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