Table of Content

    25 December 2007, Volume 62 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Regional Differences of Local Banking Systems in China
    WU Wei, LIU Weidong, LIU Yi
    2007, 62 (12):  1235-1243.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712012
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    In the case of banking, this paper defines local financial sys tems as thos e financial ins titutions which s erve different spatial ranges located in an adminis trative region. We divide these banking ins titutions into two types : the exogenous ins titutions and the endogenous ins titutions . The exogenous ins titutions are national s tate-owned banks , and the endogenous ins titutions are local banks . The former ones contain the s tate-owned commercial banks , the policy banks , the national joint shareholding commercial banks ; and the latter ones include the city commercial banks and the rural credit cooperatives . With the two types combined, local financial sys tems experience three s tages : The firs t one is the budding s tage . In this s tage , the exogenous ins titutions dominate the financial s ervices in a region; the endogenous ins titutions jus t begin their financial affairs . The s econd one is the developing s tage . Local financial sys tems have the dynamic changes in this s tage . On one hand, sys tems become more attractive for the exogenous ins titutions and make the endogenous ins titutions grow up fast; on the other hand, sys tems develop so s low that the exogenous ins titutions choos e to leave the region. The third one is the mature s tage , the endogenous ins titutions develop to the exogenous ins titutions , and sys tems change to financial centers . Based on the data from the s tatis tics of the Central Bank, this paper analys es the spatial differences among provinces . The result shows that the eas tern part plays an es s ential role in both the ins titution numbers and the as s ets ; local financial sys tems in this part are in the mature s tage . While the middle and wes tern parts have a small portion compared with the eas tern, the sys tems in thes e areas are in the budding and s low developing s tage . In local financial sys tems , the branches of s tate-owned banks dominate local financial sys tems ; the foreign banks concentrate on important city nodes ; the national joint shareholding commercial banks centralize in certain areas ; the city commercial banks are unevenly dis tributed; and the rural credit cooperatives have little contribution to local economy.

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    Urban Economic Effect Region Spatial Evolution: Taking Yunnan Province as an Example
    WU Qiyan, CHEN Hao
    2007, 62 (12):  1244-1252.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712001
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    This paper analyzes the urban inequality of Yunnan Province during 1990 to 2004. The authors find that the differentiations among the comprehensive strength of cities of Yunnan tend to increase since the 1990s. When most of the cities in Yunnan sprawl slowly and change unobviously, only a few highest-rank cities are in the process of polarization, presenting clear central-peripheral effects. Thus, the urban economy organization that has influenced the evolution of the urban-regional structure has demonstrated these following features: (1) The urban economic effect region (UEER) in Yunnan was splitted into the discretization patterns that they were fragmentized in geography before the 1990s; (2) since the 1990s, with the fast pace of the regional industrialization and urbanization as well as the growth and the radiation of the communication network of transportation, the medium- and small-sized cities have been agitated. Furthermore, with the unbalanced spatial expansion and the shrinkage of UEER, that is, UEER has gradually transformed from a simple discrete distribution structure into a three-layered-nesting structure. The UEER of Yunnan begins to reveal the obvious spatio-temporal order: from the miniature discrete patterns and the transitional patterns to the three-layered-nesting structure patterns. Finally, based on this spatio-temporal evolutive sequence, the authors analyze the three types of the spatial spread of the UEER in different spatio-temporal combinations: dominant-direction spread type, the multi-direction spread type and the abutting spread type.

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    Geographical Concentration of Manufactur ing Industries in China
    HE Canfei, PAN Fenghua, SUN Lei
    2007, 62 (12):  1253-1264.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712002
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    This paper examines the micro foundations of geographical concentration of Chinese manufacturing industries in China at very disaggregated levels using the most recent economic census data. The empirical results indicate that natural advantages, agglomeration economies and institutional changes together influence industrial location in China. Overall, industries bearing higher transportation costs and difficulty to ship are largely dispersed. Resource-based industries follow the pattern of natural advantages and show less agglomeration but metal mineral consuming industries are agglomerated. Trading establishments and foreign enterprises are heavily concentrated, confirming the importance of globalization effects. However, local protectionism has indeed discouraged industrial agglomeration, but provincial governments are more likely to succeed in exercising local protectionism policies and imitation strategy compared to the county governments. Agglomeration economies have done a better job in driving the geographical concentration of Chinese industries at the county level than at the province level. Proxies for knowledge spillovers are highly significant at the county level. The findings suggest that the spatial scale matters in understanding industrial clustering, and economic transition and its consequence are also critical in explaining the spatial pattern of Chinese industries.

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    The Formation, Evolvement and Reorganization of Spatial Structure in Yangtze River Economic Zone
    CHEN Xiuying
    2007, 62 (12):  1265-1276.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712003
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    On the bas is of re-unders tanding the spatial scope and spatial contents of the Yangtze River Economic Zone (YREZ), applying the usual spatial data analytical methods , the natural characteris tic of spatial divis ion of the YREZ has been attained. The special band-shaped core-periphery-edge s tructure of the YREZ was formed after the four developing periods of independent development, regional concentration and connection, adminis trative economic region and spatial competion and connection and so on. The YREZ has three cores , one main axis , one secondary axis , four locational axises , one peripherical region and one edge region. The bas is of the formation and evolvement of spatial s tructure in the YREZ has been analyzed from complementarity, trans ferability and tervening opportunity and other parts by applying sptial interaction theory. To speed up optimization of spatial s tructure of the YREZ, we should bring forth new ideas in the regional organization of adminis tration. Then the es sential factors of spatial s tructure need to be optimized. One regional organization and adminis tration mis s ion, known as GCT model (G represents government, C s tands for city adminis trators and T is transnational-corporations or trans regional-corporations ), should be the mos t ideal organization model, which is composed of local government, city adminis trators and the mas ter enterprises pos ses s ing transnational-corporations or trans regional-corporations networks . When a mechanism of reaching unanimity through consultation and combination between the three bodies of local government, city and transnational or trans regional-corporations is set up, spatial adminis tration of the YREZ could be mos t efficient. Among the factors of spatial s tructure of the YREZ, the nodes and the pas sageway are the framework as well as the two mos t important factors optimizing spatial s tructure .

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    Forecasts of Tourist Flow Features in Eco-tourism Area: A Case Study of Yancheng David's Deer Eco-tourism Area
    HUANG Zhenfang, YUAN Linwang, YU Zhaoyuan
    2007, 62 (12):  1277-1286.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712004
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    The number of touris ts is one of the key indexes in measuring the development of eco-tourism area . By s tudying touris t flow and its variation law and by analyzing the flow s eries to predict its trend, s cientific references could be provided for the area's planning, decis ion-making, protection, exploration and operational management. The development of eco-tourism area is subject to the interactions of a number of certainties and uncertainties , which is reflected via obs ervational touris t flow s eries . This paper es tablishes a touris t s erial analys is framework and puts forward its theoretic model. Taking Yancheng eco-tourism area for David's deer in J iangsu Province as a s tudy cas e , the paper applies various mathematic methods to dis compose , readjus t and synthetically forecas t touris t s eries . The Tramo/Seats method is us ed to undertake seasonal regulation analys is for extracting each component of time s eries , hence obtaining functional models at various s cales of long-term trend with s easonal, periodic and irregular variations . Moreover, the internal law of touris t flow fluctuation in eco-tourism area and its correlation between its influenting factors are analyzed, and thus we get the nois e elimination s eries which provides foundation for a forecas t s tudy. The synthetic forecas t results obtained by applying ARIMA model, Winter addition model, Winter multiplication model and Tramo/Seats model indicate an annual average increase of 19.5-3.14 thous and touris ts in the coming two years , coinciding with the former s eries . The differences in forecas t results between each method are relevant to the modeling thoughts and means of realization, this paper collects various methods to render forecas ts and analys is in order to gain more comprehens ive knowledge about touris t flow fluctuation. Furthermore , the various pos s ible forecas ts could offer references for capacity control, protection and exploration of tourism environmental resources and decis ion-making of tourism management.

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    The Explanation of the Selection of Settlement and Environment in the Western Liaohe River Valley during the Middle Holocene Epoch
    HAN Maoli, LIU Xiaoquan, FANG Chen, ZHANG Yi, LI Qingmiao, ZHAO Yuhui
    2007, 62 (12):  1287-1298.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712005
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    The paper focuses on the environmental explanation of the selection of settlement sites belonging to different types of archaeological culture in the middle Holocene Epoch, Western Liaohe River Valley. Through Chi-square Test, the authors point out that the settlements in the target region were mainly distributed in the sloping field of 400-500 m above sea level and the distribution presents spatial and temporal changes. The settlements in 8000-6000 a BP concentrated on the sloping field of 400-500 m above sea level. The settlements in 6000-3000 a BP were extending from the core area of 400-500 m above sea level to the higher and lower directions. While showing the preference of the height of 400-500 m above sea level, the settlements in the Western Liaohe River Valley in the middle Holocene Epoch demonstrated a horizontal amassment in the sloping field 10-40 m away from the riverbed. From the environmental explanation of the selection of settlement sites belonging to different types of archaeological culture, the paper gets three main findings: 1) the Western Liaohe River Valley could be divided into two parts, the woodland and the grassland, according to the style of living of the people. The periphery of the woodland is the living space of the people 8000-6000 a BP, when gathering, fishing and hunting were the main life style. The grassland is the main distribution area of primitive agriculture. 6000-3000 a BP is the vital period for the development of primitive agriculture, during which the settlements had a trend expanding from the periphery of woodland to the grassland. The sequence of the settlement sites defines the spatial and regional features of environment. 2) Though the Holocene Epoch experienced a prominent warming period, the animal and vegetation resources were far from abundant, restricted by the zonality constraints of the Western Liaohe River Valley. The living resources reserves could only afford the living of the people in 8000-6000 a BP when the population density was very low. In 6000-3000 a BP, the growth of population had exceeded the environmental capacity of this area. To fulfill the survival requirement, primitive agriculture was developing gradually and new man-land relationship was established. 3) Using thickness of the cultural sediments to analyze the continuance of the settlements in the middle Holocene Epoch, the paper points out that the population density then was much sparser than modern times. Considering the environmental capacity and population density, agriculture cultivation in the middle Holocene Epoch did not cause significant environmental disturbance.

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    The Changing Process and Mechanism of the Farming-grazing Transitional Land Use Pattern in Ordos
    SONG Naiping, ZHANG Fengrong
    2007, 62 (12):  1299-1308.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712006
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    The forming proces s has been resumed according to his torical materials and researched results . That was a proces s which was from nongovernmental to governmental reclamation, from Han people's tenancy to Meng and Han people's joint reclamation, and from the edge to the interior of Ordos . The changing mechanism of the farming-grazing trans itional land use pattern in Ordos was discus sed based on the factors of natural conditions , population pres sure , economic benefit and amalgamation of nationalities , etc. The period of warm-humid climate in the Qing Dynas ty provided ideal conditions for reclamation; the frangibility of the ecosys tem in this area interfered with the exces s reclamation. The farmland exploitation expanded toward borderland because of the unprecedented increase in Chinese population, and the wandering and dropping of the per unit area yield of cultivated land. The gradient force of population in Ordos and peripheries , the land degradation of the Loes s Plateau to the repuls ion for population promoted the reclamation in Ordos . Both nongovernment and government action s promoted the land reclamation in running after interes t; at the same time, the scrambling for interes t between the central and the local, Meng and Han, despots and paupers prevented the course of reclamation. The change in Meng and Han population s tructure and the common interes t relation built in the proces s of reclamation impelled the national amalgamation. The agreement and repuls ion in the national amalgamation proces s not only s trengthened the s tatus of agriculture, but consolidated the s tockbreeding as well. The farming-grazing trans itional land use pattern in Ordos was jus t formed and developed in the balancing proces s of these driving factors and obs tacles.

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    Ecological Land Fr agmentation and Its Connectivity with Urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta
    SU Weizhong, YANG Guishan, ZHEN Feng
    2007, 62 (12):  1309-1317.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712007
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    Rapid fragmentation of natural ecosystems by anthropogenic activity is the important form of natural landscape evolution on earth surface today. In an ecological sense, fragmentation involves dividing up contiguous ecosystems into smaller areas called 'patches'. The development of fragmentation indices mostly parallels the development of landscape ecology. This review examines landscape indices and their usefulness in reflecting the effects of ecosystem fragmentation. Then on the basis of Geographic Information System technology and landscape ecological method, the paper defines the concept of ecological land and measurement indices of fragmentation and urbanization size and spatial configuration, and then quantitatively explores fragmentation properties of ecological land and their relationship with urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta area. Our findings are summarized into three points of view in the end of the paper. (1) Ten fragmentation indices such as MPS, LPI, CAI, NP, PD, FD, SI, MNN, AI and CO based on landscape ecology are firstly handled by selecting the method of Principal Component Analysis of SPSS, and then there are three principal components extracted. The first principal component is defined as size component highly loaded by indices of MPS, LPI, CAI, FD, SI, and the second principal component defined as numeral component highly loaded by NP and PD, and the third component defined as spatial configuration component highly loaded by MNN, AI and CO. According to three principal components the general fragmentation model of ecological land F has been set up. Then the Cluster Analysis is selected to analyze the relationship between F and urbanization level U, urban land ratio UA and Aggregation Index of urban land UI. Lastly there are seven categories areas to be clustered for fragmentation of ecological land in the Yangtze River Delta area, which include two high fragmentation areas (F1, F2), three moderate fragmentation areas (F3, F4, F5) and two low fragmentation areas (F6, F7). (2) Based on the spatial scale of county area and the remote sensing image of a 30-metre resolution, fragmentations of ecological land are the combined representation of urbanization, ecological land properties and the other disturbance resources. The general mode of ecological land fragmentation F has no evident relationship with urbanization level and urban land ratio, whose relative coefficients respectively are 0.303 and 0.432, but has a very clearly negative relationship with urban land Aggregation Index, whose relative coefficient is -0.807. (3) The conclusions of ecological land fragmentation areas and their connectivities with urbanization provide scientific basis for selecting spatial strategies of ecological land safety patterns. At the same time it is very meaningful to guide scientifically urban spatial development direction. The following researches about this topic mainly are from three aspects: exploring influencing factors for ecological land fragmentation by use of high-revolution image data in typical areas; analyzing fragmentation and its connectivity with urbanization based on the buffer zone around urban area; and revealing the dynamical process of ecological land fragmentation caused by urbanization.

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    Land Use Advantage of Different Regions in China and Its Evolvement Mechanism
    ZHU Huiyi
    2007, 62 (12):  1318-1326.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712008
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    Land use changes in different regions have profound spatial connections. In order to reveal the spatial linkage among land use changes of various provinces in China, the conception of land use advantage index is defined firstly referring to regional advantage theory in economics, and a method (Di = Bi ×Si Bmi ×Smi ) is established to measure the index. Based on the index, land use data, and production value published in statistical yearbook, landuse advantage of different regions in China and its evolution between 1996 and 2003 are analyzed. The results show that the provinces with remarkable advantage in built-up land, including Shanghai, Tianjin, Beijing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Guangdong, strengthen their advantage in built-up land to an extent higher than the national average. Meanwhile, the advantage in agriculture land decreases in most of those provinces. The provinces with relative advantage in agriculture land, including Hebei, Fujian, Hainan and Jilin, strengthen their advantage in agriculture land to an extent exceeding Guangxi, Yunnan, Ningxia, Gansu, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. Advantage index increases in forestland or grassland in Henan, Anhui, Hunan, Heilongjiang and Sichuan. Those results imply that there are three evolvement mechanisms in the evolution process of land use advantage. They are polarization mechanism, gradient extrapolation mechanism and ecological blocking mechanism. By exploring the results of the existing researches on land use changes in China, it is further confirmed that the three mechanisms, at the national scale, not only dominate the evolution process of regional land use advantages in China, but also dominate the changes of land use pattern in China.

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    The Influence of Acta Geographica Sinica in Humanities and Social Sciences: Based on CSSCI Statistical Analysis
    SHI Zhenhong
    2007, 62 (12):  1327-1334.  doi: 10.11821/xb200712009
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    Based on China's Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI) database, using bibliometrics method, the author analyzes Acta Geographica Sinica (1934-2006) theses cited in CSSCI source journals covering the period 1998-2006 for statistical analysis and evaluation. In terms of the citation of the papers, the article reveals the influence of Acta Geographica Sinica theses cited in CSSCI in the humanities and social sciences journals source. Also it provides references to geographical research and further expansion of the influence of Acta Geographica Sinica.

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