地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (4): 852-868.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202204006

• 城乡发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆典型绿洲城乡聚落规模体系特征及空间重构
——以渭干河—库车河三角洲绿洲为例

马晨1,2(), 王宏卫1,2(), 谈波1,2, 周璟1,2, 代芯妍1,2, 王晓琴1,2   

  1. 1. 新疆大学地理科学学院,乌鲁木齐 830017
    2. 新疆绿洲生态自治区重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830017
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-30 修回日期:2021-12-23 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 王宏卫(1967-), 男, 新疆乌鲁木齐人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事干旱区生态环境与城乡发展研究。E-mail: wanghw@xju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:马晨(1996-), 男, 新疆乌鲁木齐人, 硕士生, 中国地理学会会员(S110011998A), 主要从事干旱区绿洲生态与城乡发展研究。E-mail: machen_666@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41861037);自治区人民政府地方公派出国留学成组配套项目(L06)

Characteristics and spatial reconstruction of an urban-rural settlement scale system in a typical oasis in Xinjiang: A case study of the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis

MA Chen1,2(), WANG Hongwei1,2(), TAN Bo1,2, ZHOU Jing1,2, DAI Xinyan1,2, WANG Xiaoqin1,2   

  1. 1. College of Geographical Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830017, China
    2. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830017, China
  • Received:2021-03-30 Revised:2021-12-23 Published:2022-04-25 Online:2022-06-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41861037);The Group Supporting Projects for Study Abroad sent by the People's Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, No(L06)

摘要:

随着乡村振兴战略的提出及实施,城乡关系也进入融合发展新时期,厘清典型地域城乡聚落规模体系的演变过程及现状特征并探明其空间重构与优化路径对实现农业农村现代化具有重要的现实意义。本文以新疆塔里木盆地北缘渭干河—库车河三角洲绿洲(简称“渭库绿洲”)为例,利用2009—2018年土地利用数据,采用GIS空间分析及位序—规模法则等方法,刻画了渭库绿洲城乡聚落规模体系特征;依据乡村振兴多级目标的理论内涵,探讨了渭库绿洲城乡聚落体系空间重构模式及优化路径。结果表明:① 渭库绿洲城镇村体系建设过程中城镇主导作用较弱,城乡聚落规模总体扩张较快,城乡人口与聚落增长反差较大,乡村人地关系失调特征明显;② 渭库绿洲城乡聚落规模分布整体服从位序—规模法则,零星聚落“摆尾”现象加剧且空间无序扩张特征显著,城乡聚落空间分布特征具有明显的县城、中心乡镇、干渠及道路指向性,但向中心乡镇空间集聚趋势不明显;③ 渭库绿洲城乡聚落规模体系空间重构的首要举措是整治零星斑块,对典型样区设定了3个优化目标并对空间重构路径进行了逻辑解析,提出了5种整治方向。基于乡村振兴多级目标,构建以土地要素流动为关键的空间重构方案,对促进渭库绿洲城乡聚落规模体系结构优化与功能协调、实现乡村振兴具有重要现实意义。

关键词: 乡村地理学, 城乡融合, 城乡聚落规模体系, 空间重构, 位序—规模法则;, 渭库绿洲

Abstract:

With the proposal and implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy, the relationship between urban and rural areas has entered a new period of integrated development. It is of great practical significance to clarify the evolution process and current characteristics of the typical regional urban-rural settlement scale system and explore its spatial reconstruction and optimization path for the realization of agricultural and rural modernization. Taking the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis (hereinafter referred to as "Weiku Oasis") on the northern margin of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang as an example, this paper used land-use data from 2009 to 2018, GIS spatial analysis and rank-size rules to describe the characteristics of the urban-rural settlement scale system, and discussed the urban-rural settlement scale system in the study area according to the theoretical connotation of the multilevel goal of the rural revitalization spatial reconstruction mode and optimization path. The results showed that (1) in the process of the construction of the urban and rural system, the leading role of cities and towns was weak, the overall expansion of the urban-rural settlement scale was fast, the contrast between the urban and rural population and settlement growth was large, and the maladjustment of the rural man-land relationship was obvious. (2) The overall distribution of the urban and rural settlement scale obeyed the rank-size rule, the phenomenon of a "wagging tail" of sporadic settlements was increasing, the spatial disorder of expansion was obvious, and the spatial distribution of urban and rural settlements presented the characteristics of agglomeration; however, the spatial agglomeration trend toward the central town was not obvious. (3) The first measure of spatial reconstruction of the urban and rural settlement scale system was to renovate scattered patches. Three optimization targets were set for typical sample areas, and the path of spatial reconstruction was analyzed logically. Five kinds of renovation directions were proposed. Based on the multilevel goal of rural revitalization, it is of great practical significance to construct a spatial reconstruction scheme with land factor flow as the key variable to promote the structural optimization and functional coordination of the urban and rural settlement system in the Weiku Oasis and to realize rural revitalization.

Key words: rural geography, urban-rural integration, urban-rural settlement scale system, spatial reconstruction, rank-size rule, Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis