地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (4): 1009-1027.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202204016

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

欠发达地区污染企业的区位选择与空间正义

马蓓蓓(), 党星, 袁水妹, 薛东前, 宋永永   

  1. 陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-03 修回日期:2021-11-29 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-20
  • 作者简介:马蓓蓓(1983-), 女, 河南信阳人, 博士, 教授, 博导, 主要方向为城市与区域发展。E-mail: mabb@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071214);国家自然科学基金项目(42001251);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(GK202003065)

Location selection and spatial justice of polluting enterprises in underdeveloped areas

MA Beibei(), DANG Xing, YUAN Shuimei, XUE Dongqian, SONG Yongyong   

  1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
  • Received:2021-02-03 Revised:2021-11-29 Published:2022-04-25 Online:2022-06-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(42071214);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(42001251);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, No(GK202003065)

摘要:

污染企业空间管治和优化是提高欠发达地区开发过程中抗风险能力的重要环节。基于空间正义视角,以内陆型欠发达地区黄土高原为例,依据理论指向和侧重点差异,构建了集维度、属性和空间于一体的“5+5+4”污染企业区位分析框架,探讨污染企业在欠发达地区内部形成的格局特征、区位规律及与空间正义的辩证关系。主要结论:① 综合“城乡+边界+权力+经济+环境”5个维度研究结果的共同指向,当前黄土高原污染企业区位整体呈现出典型的区域开发初期“低水平均衡+能矿资源依赖”的空间特征。② 城市网络发育相对成熟的城市群地区是污染企业的主要集聚区,但与发达地区类似的非均衡演化和去一级中心化趋势已初步显现。③ 在城乡空间和制度空间上,研究区未表现出明显的环境保护“城市中心主义”和“污染避难所”现象;在经济空间上,研究区整体处于EKC曲线的上升阶段,地方经济对污染企业存在至少不排斥的依赖关系;在环境空间上,空气质量与污染企业数量属于低水平的正向耦合,但未出现随污染企业集聚空气质量显著下降的演化特征。④ 相对发达的省会城市和区域副中心城市在污染企业布局中呈退出趋势,具有较好工业经济基础和能矿资源赋存的城市群二级节点城市应成为今后环境规制和产业准入等政策关注的重点地区。⑤ 欠发达地区开发过程中污染企业存续或承接的正义性判别是具有辩证性的复杂命题,地理学区域综合分析的学科优势能为该类研究提供科学支撑;本文立足中国区域发展实践构建了以空间正义为理论指向的污染企业区位分析框架,以期为后续研究提供空间视角下的测度工具。

关键词: 污染企业, 区位选择, 空间正义, 欠发达地区, 黄土高原

Abstract:

Spatial governance and location optimization of polluting enterprises plays an important role in improving risk resistance of underdeveloped regions. From the perspective of spatial justice, a location analytical framework of 5 dimensions - 5 attributes - 4 spaces is constructed to explore the pattern characteristics, and location rules of polluting enterprises in the Loess Plateau region, a typical inland underdeveloped area of China. Furthermore, this paper attempts to discuss the justice of location selection of polluting enterprises in underdeveloped areas from a dialectical point of view. We use methods of nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, location remoteness, inconsistency index and bivariate spatial autocorrelation to systematically analyze spatial characteristics of polluting enterprises which were subject to intensive monitoring and control of the whole country in 2017. The major findings can be summarized into five aspects. (1) Analyses on the five dimensions of urban-rural, boundary, power, economy and environmental identify that the current distribution of polluting enterprises in the Loess Plateau region is in a low-level equilibrium and has a resource-dependence, characterized as the initial stage of regional development. (2) Polluting enterprises tend to be located in urban agglomerations with relatively mature urban network. However, some problems that face the polluting enterprises in developed areas such as imbalanced evolution and decentralization have emerged in the study region. (3) In the urban-rural space and institutional space, there is no obvious "urban centralism" or "pollution sanctuary" in environmental protection. In terms of the economical space, the study area is at the rising stage of the environmental Kuznets curve. The local economy has a non-exclusive dependence on polluting enterprises. As for the environmental space, air quality and number of polluting enterprises is at a low level of positive coupling, but there is no worsening trend in air quality due to clustering of polluting enterprises. (4) Polluting enterprises will gradually withdraw from provincial capitals and regional sub-centers. Therefore, second-tier cities in urban agglomerations with good industrial foundation and resource endowment will be the key areas of environmental governance and industrial admittance. (5) The spatial justice of subsistence and relocation of polluting enterprises in the development of underdeveloped areas is a dialectical topic. With its advantage in regional comprehensive analysis, the discipline of geography can provide scientific support to this research topic. Focusing on the Loess Plateau region in China, this study presents an analytical framework and quantitative measurement tools for future research on location selection of polluting enterprises, which are aimed to improve the spatial justice theory in the regional development of underdeveloped areas.

Key words: polluting enterprise, location selection, spatial justice, underdeveloped areas, Loess Plateau