地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (3): 595-611.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202103008

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

面向地貌学本源的数字地形分析研究进展与展望

熊礼阳1,2,3(), 汤国安1,2,3(), 杨昕1,2,3, 李发源1,2,3   

  1. 1.南京师范大学虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室,南京 210023
    2.南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    3.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-09 修回日期:2021-03-09 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 汤国安(1961-), 男, 博士, 教授, 主要从事GIS数字地形分析研究。E-mail: tangguoan@njnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:熊礼阳(1989-), 男, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事地貌演化建模与模拟研究。E-mail: xiongliyang@njnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41930102);国家自然科学基金项目(41971333);国家自然科学基金项目(41771415)

Geomorphology-oriented digital terrain analysis: Progress and perspectives

XIONG Liyang1,2,3(), TANG Guoan1,2,3(), YANG Xin1,2,3, LI Fayuan1,2,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2020-07-09 Revised:2021-03-09 Published:2021-03-25 Online:2021-05-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41930102);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971333);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771415)

摘要:

数字地形分析(DTA)是地理信息科学(GIS)研究的热点。但是,当前基于数字高程模型(DEM)的数字地形分析在地貌学研究中存在重形态轻机理、重现象轻过程、重地上轻地下等问题,急需从单一的地貌形态分析,迈向面向成因、过程与机理等地貌学本源问题的研究转变。据此,本文系统梳理了面向地貌学本源的数字地形分析的相关研究现状,并从地貌学本源认识、地貌形态建模、地形因子提取、以及其他地形分析方法等研究进行了系统的回顾、梳理与分析。研究表明,基于DEM的数字地形分析虽具有地貌特征分析的潜力与优势,但是,数字地形分析存在数据表达与分析模式上的先天缺陷,亟待通过基础理论与关键技术的突破,实现理论与方法的创新发展,实现从“坡面”走向“区域”,从“形态”走向“过程”,从“地形”走向“地貌”。而当今地球系统科学的研究发展态势也到了数字地形分析研究从重视地貌形态走向揭示地貌学本源的关键阶段。因此,本文从DEM数据模型增值、地形因子及其地形空间关系、以及宏观地形分析等侧面展望了面向地貌学本源的数字地形分析研究。当今基于DEM的数字地形分析研究,正像当前的GIS是否能够真正支撑地理学发展一样,已经处于一个非常关键的十字路口。面向地貌学本源的数字地形分析研究思路可望成为地理信息科学领域理论与方法创新的一次重要探索与实践。

关键词: 数字地形分析, 地貌学, 数字高程模型, 地形因子, 地理信息科学

Abstract:

Digital terrain analysis (DTA) is one of the most important contents of research on geographical information science (GIS). However, when a digital elevation model (DEM) is used, many problems arise in DTA geomorphological studies. For instance, current DTA research focused on morphology, phenomenon and modern surface rather than the mechanism, process and underlying terrain. Thus, current DTA research needs to be transformed from the study of landform morphology to the study of landform process and mechanism. On this basis, this study summarised the current research status of geomorphology-oriented DTA and systematically reviewed and analysed the research on geomorphology, terrain modelling, terrain derivative calculation and other terrain analysis methods. The investigated studies showed that with the help of DEM data, DTA research has the advantage of carrying out geomorphology studies from the perspective of surface morphology. However, DTA research has inherent defects in data expression and analysis patterns. Thus, breakthroughs must be achieved in basic theories and key technologies to transform DTA research from phenomenon to mechanism, from morphology to process and from terrain to landform. At present, the development of research on earth science has reached a critical stage wherein DTA research should focus on the discussion of geomorphology. This study proposes several prospects of geomorphology-oriented DTA from the aspects of value-added DEM, terrain derivatives and their spatial relations and macro-terrain analysis. The study of DTA by using DEM is at a critical period along with the issue on whether the current GIS technology can truly support the development of geography. The research idea of geomorphology-oriented DTA is expected to be an important area of exploration and practice in GIS.

Key words: digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, digital elevation model, terrain index, geographical information science