地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (9): 1860-1878.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202009004

• 气候与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

局地气候分区框架下城市热岛时空分异特征研究进展

江斯达1(), 占文凤1,2(), 杨俊3, 刘紫涵1, 黄帆1, 赖佳梦1, 李久枫1, 洪发路1, 黄媛4, 陈吉科5, 李旭辉6   

  1. 1. 南京大学江苏省地理信息技术重点实验室/南京大学国际地球系统科学研究所,南京 210023
    2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3. 东北大学江河建筑学院,沈阳 110169
    4. 西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,成都 611756
    5. 南京信息工程大学遥感与测绘工程学院,南京 210044
    6. 耶鲁大学-南京信息工程大学大气环境中心,南京 210044
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-27 修回日期:2020-06-07 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-11-25

Urban heat island studies based on local climate zones: A systematic overview

JIANG Sida1(), ZHAN Wenfeng1,2(), YANG Jun3, LIU Zihan1, HUANG Fan1, LAI Jiameng1, LI Jiufeng1, HONG Falu1, HUANG Yuan4, CHEN Jike5, LEE Xuhui6   

  1. 1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Jiangho Architecture College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China
    4. School of Architecture and Design, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
    5. School of Remote Sensing & Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
    6. Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • Received:2019-11-27 Revised:2020-06-07 Published:2020-09-25 Online:2020-11-25

摘要:

局地气候分区(LCZ)框架自2012年提出以来,在城市热岛研究领域备受重视,但目前对LCZ框架下城市热岛(简称LCZ城市热岛)时空分异特征仍缺乏系统性总结。本文以统计和“荟萃分析”为手段,系统梳理了2012—2019年LCZ城市热岛研究在数据获取手段、时空格局和影响因素3个方面的进展,并对今后研究进行了初步展望。结果表明,迄今为止全球范围内已在超过130座城市开展了LCZ城市热岛研究,这些城市主要集中于中纬度(35°N~55°N)的亚洲和欧洲地区,且主要聚焦于以近地表气温表征的“冠层热岛”和以地表温度表征的“地表热岛”。具体而言:① 在温度数据获取方面,站点观测(文献数量占比42.5%)、模型模拟(38.3%)与移动测量(19.2%)是获取气温的主要方法,其中模型模拟方法占比逐年升高。而卫星热红外遥感是获取地表温度的主要手段(86.5%)。② 在时空格局方面,就全球而言,LCZ气温的类间极值差(均值为3.1 K)显著低于地表温度的类间极值差(9.8 K),且该极值差通常在夏季或冬季较大;冠层热岛与地表热岛均存在显著的“LCZ类内热岛”现象。③ 在影响因素方面,多数研究局限于定性分析地表结构、覆盖、材质和人类活动的影响,而普遍忽略了建筑布局与邻近LCZ类型等潜在因素的作用。本文将有利于从整体上更好地把握LCZ城市热岛的研究进展与今后的发展趋势。

Abstract:

Since 2012, urban heat islands (UHIs) over various cities have been re-investigated under the local climate zones (LCZ) concept. However, a systematic overview of the recent progress in terms of the LCZ-based UHI studies remains lacking. This status quo has considerably restrained the UHI studies across global cities in a more standard manner. Here we comprehensively reviewed the preceding LCZ-based UHI studies with statistical- and meta-analysis. The literature review indicates that LCZ-based UHIs have been conducted over more than 130 cities globally, mostly located in the middle latitudes (35°N-55°N) within Asia and Europe. These investigations focus either on the canopy layer UHI (represented by surface air temperature, SAT) or on the surface layer UHI (denoted by land surface temperature, LST) or both. The overview was conducted mainly from three aspects including the "data acquisition", "spatiotemporal pattern", and "associated control". Our further findings show that: (1) On "data acquisition", satellite thermal remote sensing is the most important technique for retrieving LST, with the percentage of studies that employ this technique accounting for 86.5%. But for SAT, the main approaches include measurements by fixed stations (42.5%) and mobile vehicles (19.2%) as well as simulations by models (38.3%), among which the approach by model simulation has received more attention; (2) On "spatiotemporal pattern", the mean difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures among various LCZs for SAT (3.1 K) is significantly lower than that for LST (9.8 K), with relatively high magnitudes in summer and winter compared with the other seasons for these two types of temperatures.Prominent "intra-LCZ heat islands" were observed for both the canopy and surface UHIs; (3) On "associated controls", most studies are still qualitative on the analysis of the relationships between LCZ-based UHIs and their controls (e.g., surface structure and fabric, land cover type, and human activity). Other potential controls such as building typology and adjacency among LCZ types remain less considered. We finally provided several prospects for the LCZ-based UHI studies. We hope this overview would be helpful for improving the understanding of the current progress and upcoming prospects for the LCZ-based UHI studies.