地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (7): 1373-1385.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007004

• 青藏高原及人类活动 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于地貌特征的青藏高原边缘泥石流沟分类

梁馨月1,2,5(), 徐梦珍2, 吕立群2,3, 崔一飞2, 张风宝1,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,杨凌 712100
    2. 清华大学水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室,北京 100084
    3. 北京林业大学水土保持学院,北京100083
    4. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所,杨凌 712100
    5. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-02 修回日期:2020-05-27 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 张风宝 E-mail:liangxinyue17@mails.ucas.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:梁馨月(1995-), 女, 四川南充人, 硕士生, 主要从事土壤侵蚀与山地灾害研究。E-mail: liangxinyue17@mails.ucas.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23090401);国家自然科学基金项目(41790434)

Geomorphological characteristics of debris flow gullies on the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

LIANG Xinyue1,2,5(), XU Mengzhen2, LYU Liqun2,3, CUI Yifei2, ZHANG Fengbao1,4   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation , CAS and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    3. Beijing Engineering Research Center of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    4. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
    5. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-11-02 Revised:2020-05-27 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Fengbao E-mail:liangxinyue17@mails.ucas.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23090401);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41790434)

摘要:

青藏高原地形急变带受构造运动、极端降水等因素的影响,呈现泥石流高发、群发的特点。对泥石流沟地貌特征的科学分类有利于探索泥石流发生机制、确定防治对策,对山区防灾减灾和生态修复具有重要意义。本文以青藏高原边缘7个泥石流高发流域为研究对象,开展地貌测量和统计分析。通过非度量多维尺度分析,将泥石流沟分为3种类型:I型是基岩下切区暴雨型泥石流;II型是基岩下切区冰川融水型泥石流;III型是沉积盆地下切区暴雨型泥石流。通过Kruskal-Wallis检验进一步分析3类泥石流沟地貌差异性,从地质、地貌与气候等方面探讨了3类泥石流沟的松散物来源与水沙输移特性。在气候变暖的影响下,II型泥石流的活跃性将增大;随着极端降雨频率的增加,I型和III型泥石流活跃性也将增加。

关键词: 青藏高原, 泥石流沟分类, 非度量多维尺度分析, Kruskal-Wallis检验

Abstract:

The edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by high topographic relief, significant tectonic motion, extreme precipitation, and densely populated active debris flow gullies. It is essential to scientifically categorize the debris flow gullies to understand their mechanisms, prevent and mitigate debris flow disasters, and find out strategies to restore the ecology. The present study carried out topographical measurements and statistical analyses of seven regions on the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, in which active debris flow gullies are concentrated. The debris flow gullies are classified into three types by means of nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Type I is formed by rainstorms in exposed bedrock areas, Type II is formed by glaciers in exposed bedrock areas, and Type III is formed by rainstorms in depositional basins. The variation in landforms of the three types is analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The sources of loose material and the characteristics of water flow and sediment transport in all the three types of debris flow gullies are discussed from the aspects of geology, topography, and climate. It is shown that the activity of Type II increases along with the warming of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the activities of types I and III increase along with the frequency of extreme rainfalls.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, categorization of debris flow gullies, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, Kruskal-Wallis test