地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (9): 1745-1757.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909004

• 地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

2000-2017年河龙区间输沙量锐减归因分析

高海东1,2,刘晗2,贾莲莲3,庞国伟4,王杰1   

  1. 1. 西安理工大学省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室,西安 710048
    2. 西安理工大学土木建筑工程学院,西安 710048
    3. 黄河水利委员会黄河上中游管理局,西安 710021
    4. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-05 修回日期:2019-07-28 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 作者简介:x高海东(1983-), 男, 内蒙古乌审旗人, 博士, 讲师, 中国地理学会会员(S110010718M), 研究方向为土壤侵蚀与水土保持。E-mail: hdgao@msn.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41877077)

Attribution analysis of precipitous decrease of sediment loads in the Hekou-Longmen section of Yellow River since 2000

GAO Haidong1,2,LIU Han2,JIA Lianlian3,PANG Guowei4,WANG Jie1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
    2. School of Civil engineering and architecture, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
    3. Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau, Yellow River Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources, Xi'an 710021, China
    4. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2018-12-05 Revised:2019-07-28 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-09-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41877077)

摘要:

2000年以来,黄河输沙量锐减。科学认识黄河输沙量变化原因,具有重要意义。以河龙区间为研究对象,分析了河龙区间输沙量变化趋势,构建了梯田、淤地坝以及植被等大规模生态建设措施的减沙贡献率计算方法,阐述了2000-2017年河龙区间输沙量锐减原因,针对河龙区间输沙量变化趋势和治理格局,提出了河龙区间治理对策。主要结论为:① 1952-2017年,河龙区间年降水量无显著变化趋势,研究区年输沙量呈现极显著减少趋势(p < 0.001);② 1979年和1999年为研究区输沙量发生突变的两个时间节点(p < 0.05),1952-1979年区间年均输沙量为9.30亿t,1980-1999年区间年均输沙量为4.20亿t,2000-2017年均输沙量大幅降至1.03亿t,降幅达89%;③ 受植被和梯田共同影响,2000-2015年研究区坡面土壤侵蚀量变化介于1.90亿~5.13亿t之间,且呈下降趋势;2000-2011年河龙区间淤地坝年均拦沙量为1.38亿t;④ 植被恢复是河龙区间输沙量减少的主要原因,贡献率为54%,梯田和淤地坝合计贡献了34%,水库拦沙和引水取沙贡献了12%;⑤ 植被恢复主要导致径流含沙量降低,而淤地坝建设主要降低了流域泥沙输移比。

关键词: 河龙区间, 输沙量, 生态建设, 减沙贡献率

Abstract:

Since 2000, the amount of sediment loads in the Yellow River has decreased sharply. It is of great practical significance to scientifically understand the reasons for the sediment load change in the Yellow River. This study selected the Hekou-Longmen (HL) section, which consists of main sand producing areas of the Yellow River, as the study region, analyzed the sediment discharge change trend, constructed the calculation method of the contribution rate for the sediment reduction of major soil and water conservation measures, such as terraces, check dams, and vegetation, and expounded the reasons of sediment load reduction on the HL section since 2000. The main results were as follows: (1) From 1952 to 2017, there was no significant change of annual precipitation in the HL section, and the annual runoff and annual sediment load both showed an extremely significant (p < 0.001) declining trend. (2) The two mutation years for sediment load reduction in the HL section were in 1979 and 1999, respectively. The average annual sediment loads decreased from 9.30×10 8 t during 1952-1979, to 4.20×10 8 t during 1980-1999, it was, and in 2000-2017, it dropped to 1.03×10 8 t, a decrease of 89%. (3) Influenced by vegetation and terraces, the amount of soil erosion on the slope of the HL section decreased year by year from 2000 to 2015, changing from 1.90×10 8 t to 5.13×10 8 t, and the average annual sediment reduction of check dams from 2000 to 2011 was 1.38×10 8 t. (4) Vegetation restoration was the main reason for the reduction of sediment loads in the HL section, with a contribution rate of 54%. Terraces and check dams, and reservoir and water diversion contributed 34%, and 12%, respectively. (5) Vegetation restoration mainly led to reduced runoff sediments, while check dam construction played a major part in reducing the sediment transport ratio of the basin. According to the changing trend of sediment load, countermeasures are put forward.

Key words: Hekou-Longmen section, sediment load, ecological construction, contribution rate of sediment reduction