地理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (3): 544-556.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903011

• 气候变化与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于3S技术方法的中国冰湖编目

杨成德1(), 王欣1(), 魏俊峰1, 刘琼欢2, 鲁安新3, 张勇1, 唐志光1   

  1. 1. 湖南科技大学资源环境与安全工程学院,湘潭 411201
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100000
    3. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所,北京 100089
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-05 修回日期:2018-12-15 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-03-19
  • 作者简介:

    杨成德(1994-), 男, 甘肃榆中县人, 硕士生, 主要从事冰冻圈遥感与灾害研究。E-mail: yang_chengde@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771075, 41571061, 41271091);冰冻圈科学国家重点科学实验室科研项目(SKLCS-OP-2017-05)

Chinese glacial lake inventory based on 3S technology method

Chengde YANG1(), Xin WANG1(), Junfeng WEI1, Qionghuan LIU2, Anxin LU3, Yong ZHANG1, Zhiguang TANG1   

  1. 1. College of Resources, Environment and Safety Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, Hunan, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS, Beijing 100089, China
  • Received:2018-03-05 Revised:2018-12-15 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-03-19
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771075, No.41571061, No.41271091;Fund of State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Science, No.SKLCS-OP-2017-05

摘要:

通过研制一整套基于3S技术的冰湖编目规范与方法,以159景Landsat8 OLI遥感影像为基础,结合中国第二次冰川编目数据与Google Earth中的影像数据等,通过人工目视解译获取冰湖边界,首次完成了基于统一规范的中国冰湖编目数据库建设,查清了2015±1~2年中国冰湖的整体分布状态。结果显示,当前中国共有冰湖17300个,总面积1132.83±147.449 km2,其中冰川补给湖约占中国冰湖总面积的74.6%和总数量的66.5%。并且冰湖数量与面积分布的空间差异十分显著。流域上,外流区冰湖广泛发育,其中恒河—雅鲁藏布江流域是中国冰湖分布最多的流域,现有冰湖7898个,面积约622.42±75.55 km2,分别占中国冰湖总量的45.7%和54.9%;海拔上,中国冰湖分布于2167~6247 m的海拔范围内,各山脉的冰湖面积呈近似正态分布,总体在5000~5500 m处达到峰值,占总面积的36.7%(975.06±128.83 km2);但各个山脉的分布差异显著,其中念青唐古拉山、喜马拉雅山的冰湖分布最为集中,分别占中国冰湖总面积的28.3%和26.4%。

关键词: 冰湖编目, 遥感数据, 规范与方法, 冰湖分布

Abstract:

The glacial lake inventory of China based on the unified and standardized specifications with 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) technology has been finished for the first time. The overall distribution of glacial lakes of China in 2015 has been mapped on the basis of 159 landsat 8 OLI remote sensing images, the second Chinese glacier inventory data and Google Earth image data by manual visual interpretation method. The results show that there are 17300 glacial lakes in China at present with a total area of 1132.83±147.449 km2, and the glacier-fed lake accounted for about 74.6% of the total area of glacial lakes and 66.5% of the total number in China. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of glacial lake appears significantly heterogeneous. There are a huge number of glacial lakes in the outflow basin, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra is the most densely distributed basin of glacial lakes in China, where survive 7898 glacial lakes with an area of about 622.42±75.55 km2, accounting for the total number of 45.7% and 54.9% of the country, respectively. Additionally, the glacial lakes in China cover an altitude of 2167-6247 m. The glacial lakes area distribution at different altitudes in each mountain range roughly presents in normal shape and the peak value appears in the altitude bands of about 5000-5500 m, accounting for 36.7% (975.06±128.83 km2) of the total area. As far as the glacial lake distribution in different mountain ranges was concerned, the glacial lakes in the Nyainqentanglha Mountains and the Himalayas are the most concentrated ones among 13 mountains of western China, accounting for about 28.3% and 26.4% of the total area in China, respectively.

Key words: glacial lake inventory, remote sensing data, specifications and methods, glacial lake distribution