Regional disparities and the influence mechanism within China's urban employees' basic endowment insurance funds
LI Qiong1,2(),ZHOU Yu1,ZHANG Lanlan3,WU Xiongzhou1,CHAO Nan1
1. Jishou University Business School, Jishou 416000, Hunan, China 2. Research Institute of Geoscience and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jishou University Academician's Expert Workstation, Jishou 416000, Hunan, China 3. Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410081, China
The reduction of regional disparities and the national co-ordination of basic endowment insurance funds will help to improve well-being, promote social equity and enhance happiness. This study engages with panel data obtained from 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) that was extracted during the period 2007-2016. Regional disparities and the influence mechanisms of China's urban employees' basic endowment insurance funds will be studied by using the Theil index, exploratory spatial data analysis and geographic detectors. The research shows that: (1) the total expenditure of urban employees' basic endowment insurance funds and the between-region Theil index steadily decrease while the within-region Terre index increases on a yearly basis; (2) the accumulated balances of urban employees' basic endowment insurance funds follow significantly different spatial distributions. High-value and sub-high-value areas are mainly located in the eastern region, while second-low-value and low-value areas are mainly located in the western and northeastern regions; (3) seven factors are also identified, including Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the number of subscriptions and institutional support rate that can greatly affect regional disparities in basic endowment insurance funds. In addition, the imposition of various factors are reflected as nonlinear increase or double factor enhancement. We should therefore adhere to coordinated regional socio-economic development, reinforce the contribution base, provide guarantees to those who have qualified and promote the incremental emergence of a national co-ordination of basic endowment insurance funds.
Wang JF, Li XH, ChristakosG, et al.Geographical detectors-based health risk assessment and its application in the Neural Tube Defects study of the Heshun Region, China. , 2010, 24(1): 107-127.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13658810802443457
Physical environment, man‐made pollution, nutrition and their mutual interactions can be major causes of human diseases. These disease determinants have distinct spatial distributions across geographical units, so that their adequate study involves the investigation of the associated geographical strata. We propose four geographical detectors based on spatial variation analysis of the geographical strata to assess the environmental risks of health: the risk detector indicates where the risk areas are; the factor detector identifies factors that are responsible for the risk; the ecological detector discloses relative importance between the factors; and the interaction detector reveals whether the risk factors interact or lead to disease independently. In a real‐world study, the primary physical environment (watershed, lithozone and soil) was found to strongly control the neural tube defects (NTD) occurrences in the Heshun region (China). Basic nutrition (food) was found to be more important than man‐made pollution (chemical fertilizer) in the control of the spatial NTD pattern. Ancient materials released from geological faults and subsequently spread along slopes dramatically increase the NTD risk. These findings constitute valuable input to disease intervention strategies in the region of interest.